Week 2: Wound Healing (Ch 2) Flashcards Preview

Integumentary > Week 2: Wound Healing (Ch 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2: Wound Healing (Ch 2) Deck (30):
1

What are the 3 phases of healing?

1. Inflammation
2. Proliferation
3. Maturation and Remodeling

2

What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?

Swelling (Tumor)
Redness (Rubor)
Warmth (Calor)
Pain (Dolor)
Decreased Function (Functio Laesa)

3

What happens in the first vascular response?

- transudate produces localized edema
- blood vessels constrict to reduce blood loss
- platelet aggregation
- activated platelets release chemical mediators

4

Which chemical mediators do activated platelets release and what do they do?

Cytokines: signal proteins
Growth Factors: cell growth and differentiation
Chemotactic Agents: attract cells for wound repair

5

What happens in the second vascular response?

Vasodilation within 30 minutes of injury, exudate formation, histimine release, and prostaglandin release

6

What does histamine release do?

increased vessel wall permeability, short term vasodilation

7

What does prostaglandin release do?

long term vasodilation

8

What cells are involved in the cellular response of inflammation?

platelets, PMNs, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells

9

What are the main stages of Inflammation?

Vascular responses 1 and 2
Cellular response

10

What are the first white blood cells to reach the site of injury? What do they do?

Polymorphic Neutrophils
Diapedesis, Margination, and Chemotaxis

11

Which cells are very specific in their activity?

OMNs

12

What do macrophages do?

enhance inflammatory processes, clean up

13

What do mast cells do?

enhance inflammatory processes

14

What are the main stages of the Proliferation phase?

Angiogenesis
Granulation Tissue formation
Wound contraction
Epithelialization

15

Which phase of proliferation do angioblasts act in? What do they do?

Angiogenesis
forms new blood vessels

16

Which phase of proliferation do fibroblasts act in? What do fibroblasts do?

Granulation tissue formation
Builds granulation tissue

17

Which phase of proliferation do myofibroblasts act in?

Wound contraction

18

Which phase of Proliferation do keratinocytes act in?

Epithelialization

19

Which cells act in granulation tissue formation?

Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), integrins

20

What happens during the maturation and remodeling phase of healing?

- New collagen synthesis
- Old collagen broken down by collagenases
- Reorientation of collagen fibers

21

How long might maturation and remodeling continue?

up to 2 years after wound closure

22

What is it called when the edges of the wound can be physically approximated?

Primary closure

23

What is it called when granulation tissue must be produced to full the wound defect before epithelialization and wound closure can occur?

Secondary closure

24

How long should it take a wound to close by primary closure?

1-14 days

25

How long does it take a wound to heal by secondary closure?

acute = within 2 weeks
chronic = within 30 days

26

What happens in delayed primary closure (tertiary)?

wound is cleaned and observed for signs of infections... typically kept open with a wound vac for some reason... then closed with sutures and should heal within 1-2 weeks of suturing

27

What can cause chronic wounds?

- senescent cells
- higher levels of MMPs
- lower levels of TIMPs
- greater numbers of inflammatory cytokines and chronic wound cells
- arrested curent of injury

28

What can cause chronic inflammation?

- presence of foreign body in wound bed
- repetitive mechanical trauma
- cytotoxic agents

29

What else is abnormal when it comes to wound healing?

absence of inflammation, hypertrophic scarring, keloids, contractures, dehiscence

30

What can cause hypogranulation or nonadvancing wound edge?

hypogranular wound, epibole