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Sun Yat-sen



Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)



Chiang Ching-kuo (Jiang Jingguo)



the Nationalist Party Guomindang / Kuomintang (KMT)


Three Principles of the People

the ideological basis of the political program of the Chinese Nationalist leader Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), championing the principles of nationalism, democracy, and socialism.

  1. Nationalism
  2. Democracy/rights of the people
  3. Socialism/ peoples livelihood


First United Front

also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), was formed in 1923 as an alliance to end warlordism in China. Together they formed the National Revolutionary Army and set out in 1926 on the Northern Expedition. The CPC joined the KMT as individuals, making use of KMT's superiority in numbers to help spread communism. The KMT, on the other hand, wanted to control the communists from within. Both parties had their own aims and the Front was unsustainable. In 1927 Nationalist Field Marshal (Generalissimo) Chiang Kai-shek purged the Communists from the Front while the Northern Expedition was still half-complete. This initiated a civil war between the two parties that lasted until the Second United Front was formed in 1936 to prepare for the coming Second Sino-Japanese War.


Nanjing régime

an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China. It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing from Zhili clique warlord Sun Chuanfang halfway through the Northern Expedition in 1927.


The Nanking decade was marked by both progress and frustration. The period was far more stable than the preceding warlord era. There was enough stability to allow economic growth and the start of ambitious government projects, some of which were taken up again by the new government of the People's Republic after 1949. Nationalist foreign service officers negotiated diplomatic recognition from western governments and began to unravel the unequal treaties. Entrepreneurs, educators, lawyers, doctors, and other professionals were more free to create modern institutions than at any earlier time. Yet there was also government suppression of dissent, corruption and nepotism, revolt of several provinces, conflict within the government, the survival and growth of the Chinese Communist Party, and widespread protest against the government's failure to stop Japanese aggression.


Second United Front

the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China(CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.



The February 28 Incident or the February 28 Massacre, also known as the 2.28 Incident 

was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government, which killed thousands of civilians beginning on 28 February 1947. The number of Taiwanese deaths is estimated to be 10,000.[1] The massacre marked the beginning of the White Terror in which tens of thousands of other Taiwanese went missing, died or were imprisoned. The incident is one of the most important events in Taiwan's modern history and was a critical impetus for the Taiwan independence movement.


Taiwan from 1945 to 1949

n 1945, following the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, the Allies handed temporary administrative control of Taiwan to the Republic of China (ROC), thus ending 50 years of Japanese colonial rule. Local inhabitants became resentful of what they saw as high-handed and frequently corrupt conduct on the part of the Kuomintang (KMT) authorities, their arbitrary seizure of private property and their economic mismanagement. The flashpoint came on 27 February 1947 in Taipei, when a dispute between a cigarette vendor and an officer of the Office of Monopoly triggered civil disorder and an open rebellion that lasted for days.[2] The violence spread and led to indiscriminate lynching of Mainlanders. The uprising was violently put down by the military of the Republic of China, and the island was placed under martial law.


The Nationalist régime: a régime in exile


A fictitious régime: the one-China principle


A colonial configuration


An anti-capitalist ideology: state capitalism


A war economy


State capitalism and the cleavage of the production
sector (Taiwan) — A twofold cleavage of the production sector

  1. A rentier economy monopolizing the domestic market
  2. An unprotected sector facing the world market


A rentier economy monopolizing the domestic market (A twofold cleavage of the production sector)


An unprotected sector facing the world market (A twofold cleavage of the production sector)


The international de-recognition of the
Republic of China: a developmental state as a
complementary legitimacy?

  1. A new legitimacy versus a complementary legitimacy
  2. The launch of the semiconductor industry


A new legitimacy versus a complementary legitimacy


The younger generation of Mainland technocrats
came to the forefront — 2 main figures

  • Sun Yunxuan, 1913-2006, Minister of Economic Affairs (1969-1978), Premier (1978-1984)
  • Li Guoding, 1910-2001, Minister of Finance (1969-1976)


The launch of the semiconductor industry (Taiwan)


A twofold family entrepreneurship but no working class (Taiwan)

  1. A twofold entrepreneurship: large and small
  2.  Industrialization without the formation of a working class


A twofold entrepreneurship: large and small (Taiwan)


Industrialization without the formation of a working class