Week 3 Cell Wall Inhibitor Drugs Flashcards Preview

Foundations of Medicine > Week 3 Cell Wall Inhibitor Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 3 Cell Wall Inhibitor Drugs Deck (30):
1

Penicillin V and Penicillin G

V= oral G= IV form

2

Probenecid

impairs renal secretion of weak acid, used to increase half life of penicillin

3

Nafcillin

penicillinase-resistant penicillin

4

Dicloxacillin

Penicillinase-resistant penicillin

5

Clavulanate

Beta-lactamase inhibitor

6

sulbactam

Beta-lactamase inhibitor

7

tazovactam

Beta-lactamase inhibitor

8

Ampicillin

Aminopenicillin

9

Amoxicillin

Aminopenicillin

10

Piperacillin

Antipseudomonal penicillin

11

ticarcillin

antipseudomonal penicillin

12

Cephalosporin

Inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding protiens
less susceptible to penicillinases but can be inactivated by extended spectrum beta-lactamases

13

Carbapenems

Imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem
contain beta-lactam ring and bind to penicillin binding proteins
broad but MRSA resistant
GI distress, cross allergic, renal dysfunciton

14

Aztreonam

monocyclic beta lactams (use if patient is allergic to penicillin)
cell wall inhibitor and binds to polypeptide binding protein
gram neg rods

15

Vancomycin

binds with high affinity to the D-alanyl-D-alanine terminus of the cell wall precursor unit, inhibitng release from the bactopreno carrier, thus preventing synthesis. Inhibits TRANSGLYCOSLASE reaction
gram +, especially MRSA and C.diff
empiric treament

16

Bacitracin

prevents dephosphorylation of bactoprenol carrier needed for elongation of peptidoglycan cell wall NOT A BETA-LACTAM
topical, nephrotoxic when give IM

17

Daptomycin

binds to cell membrane and aggregates leading to depolarization of membrane and cell death, bactericidal
Only gram +
Side effects- reversible organizing pneumonia binds pulmonary surfactant accumulating in pulmonary spaces

18

Polymyxin B

binds phosphatidylethanolamine in the membrane creating holes, ultimately leading to release of cellular contents
Multidrug resistant gram negative bacilli, use in combo with other antibiotic to facilitate entry

19

Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Mechanism of Action

binds to pencillin binding proteins of transpeptidase (which catalyze the terminal reaction in bacterial wall synthesis) and inhibits. Build up of cell wall precursors, which leads to activation of autolytic enzymes) Cell wall inhibitors weaken the cell wall when water enters through osmosis, cell bursts.

20

Penicillinse- resistant penicillins

Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
Same mechansim as penicillin but have larger R groups so resistant to penicillinases. Effective against ONLY GRAM +

21

Aminopenicillins

Ampicillin, Amoxicillin
Expanded spectrum, GRAM POS AND GRAM NEG
More water soluble and can pass through porin channels
Same mechanism as penicillin, susceptible to beta-lactamases

22

Antipseudomonal Penicillins

Ticarcillin, piperacillin
Widest spectrum, GRAM POS<, GRAM NEG, and PSEUDOMONAS
Same mechanism as penicillin, susceptible to beta-lactamases

23

1st generation cephalosporin

Gram + cocci
surgical prophylaxis
Can't cross blood brain barrier

24

2nd generation cephalosporin

Gram Neg AND Gram Pos
use immediately prior to surgery to prevent infection
Can't cross blood brain barrier

25

3rd generation cephalosporin

Strep and more serious Gram NEG that are resistant to other beta-lactam
CAN cross blood brain barrier

26

4th generation cephalosporin

BROADEST spectrum
GRAM POS, GRAM NEG, and PSEUDOMONAS

27

5th generation cephalosporin

Binds penicillin binding protein 2a in MRSA (mrsa has low affinity for other beta-lactams)

28

Imipenem

carbapenem, beta lactam ring and binds to penicillin binding proteins, broad but MRSA is resistant.
Administered with cilastatin- decrease cleavage of the beta-lactam ring by renal dehydropeptidase I and prevent formaiton of potentially toxic nephrotoxic metabolite

29

Meropenem

Carbapenems

30

Cilastatin

administered with Imipenem to decrease cleavage of the beta-lactam ring by renal dehyrdopeptidase I and prevent formation of potentially toxic nephrotoxin