Week 7 Neoplasia- Nelson Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 7 Neoplasia- Nelson Deck (34):
1

Neoplasia

uncontrolled cell growth

2

Benign

can't spread to another tissue, does not metastize, generally well differentiated, low mitotic rate

3

Malignant

has ability to metastasize (can spread to other tissues), less well differentiated, higher mitotic rate, may show atypical mitotic figures

4

hamartoma

non-neoplastic disorganized collection of normal tissue

5

Dysplasia

refers to the disordered growth and cytologic changes seen in epithelium

6

carcinoma in situ

arise from surface epithelium which exhibits dysplasia

7

Adenoma

benign and glandular

8

Adenocarcinoma

malignant and glandular

9

Carcinoma

epithelial origin

10

Sarcome

mesenchymal origin

11

Teratoma

germ cell origin

12

What is the number one cancer killer? Top 3?

LUNG
prostate/breast
colorectal

13

4 types of gene typically mutated in cancer

-growth-promoting proto-oncogenes (gain of functon)
-growth inhibiting tumor suppressor genes (loss of function/heterozygozity)
-Genes that regulate programmed cell death
-Genes involved in DNA repair
-chromosomal translocation

14

HER2- neu

breast cancer, over expression of growth factor

15

APC

ubinquate B-catenin
COLON CANCER

16

BRCA

regulates DNA repair, BREAST CANCER

17

RB

retinblastoma
(Rb binds E2F)

18

TGF-B

pancreatic, colorectal carcinomas

19

p53

LUNG, COLON, Breast carcinomas

20

Altered cellular metabolism

Warburg effect, can detect using PET scan

21

The two enablers of cancer

Genomic instability
Inflammation

22

Genomic instability
Microinstability vs. Chromosomal instability

inherited defects in DNA repair mechanisms are at greatly increased risk of developing cancer
MIN- arises most often from defects in mismatch repair and nuclear excision repair

23

direct acting chemical carcinogenesis

required no metabolic conversion to become carcinogenic

24

indirect acting chemical carcinogenesis

required metabolic conversion of procarcinogen to an ultimate carcinogen to become active

25

Paraneoplastic Syndrome

symptom complex in cancer patient, tumor secreting hormones in places that should not be releasing hormone (endocrine hormones released in lungs)

26

Cachexia or wasting

progressive loss of body fat and lean muscle mass along with weakness and anorexia that is associated with cancer

27

Grading

degree of differentiation of the tumor cells (1 is most differentiated)

28

Staging

size/ or local degree of invasion

29

T

characteristics of tumor

30

N

nodal metastasis

31

M

metastasis

32

immunohistochemical

detects cell products or surface markers on tissue
-categorization of undifferentiat malignant tumors
-determination of the site of origin of a tumor
-detection of molecules that have prognostic or therapeutic significance

33

Flow cytometry

-identification of leukemias and lymphomas
-quantification of cells (sub populations expressing the antigen of interest) in a stream of fluid by passing them by an electronic detection device

34

Cancer biomarkers

cannot be used for definitive diagnosis of cancer, but selected situations can assist in screening for cancer (ex. elevated PSA in prostate cancer)