Week 3 Perception and Learning in Organisations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 Perception and Learning in Organisations Deck (61):
1

Self-Concept Defined

An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations

2

What are the three characteristics of self-concept

Complexity
Consistency
Clarity

3

A characteristic of self concept where people have multiple self-views

Complexity

4

Consistency is where people

have similar personality traits and values across multiple selves.

5

_____ is the degree to which a person has a clear, confidently defined and stable self concept

Clarity

6

People have better wellbeing with

Multiple selves (complexity)
Well-established selves (clarity)
Selves are similar and compatible with traits (consistency)

7

Multiple selves


(complexity)

8

(clarity)

Well-established selves

9

Selves are similar and compatible with traits

(consistency)

10

What are the Four ‘Selves’ of Self-Concept

Self-enhancement
Self-verification
Self-evaluation
Social self

11

The drive to promote/protect a positive self-view is known as

Self-enhancement

12

Self-verification

The verification and maintenance of existing self-concepts

13

Evaluating ourselves through self-___, self-___, and locus of control is Self-_____

self-esteem, efficacy evaluation

14

Social self

Defining ourselves in terms of group membership

15

Positive self-enhancement concept outcomes

Better personal adjustment and mental and physical health and inflates personal causation and probability of success

16

Self-verification stabilises our

self-concept

17

Self-verification outcomes: _____ attention, acceptance and memory of _____ consistent with our self-concept
We _____ more with those who affirm and reflect our current self-concept

Selective, information, interact

18

Self-Evaluation consists of

Self-esteem
Self-Eficacy
Locus of control

19

Social identity:

defining ourselves through groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment

20

We identify with groups that support self-_____

enhancement

21

The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us -

Perception

22

Perception in determining

- which information gets noticed
- How to categorise this information
- How to interpret information within our existing knowledge framework

23

Selective attention:

The process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information

24

Confirmation bias:

we screen out information contrary to our beliefs and values

25

______ thinking is the organising of people into _____ categories that are stored in our ____

Categorical, preconceived, LTM

26

Perceptual Organisation/Interpretation involve

Categorical thinking
Perceptual grouping principles
Interpreting incoming information

27

Categorical thinking is

Mostly non-conscious process of organising people and things

28


What are the 3 Perceptual grouping principles

Similarity or proximity
Closure: filling in missing pieces
Perceiving trends

29

Interpreting incoming information is done by

Emotional markers that automatically evaluate information

30

Mental Modes

The visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world

31

Helps us to make sense of incoming stimuli

Mental modes

32

A problem can occur when _____ modes block recognition of new opportunities and perspectives

Mental

33

Stereotyping

Assigning traits to people based on social category membership

34

Stereotyping occurs because of

Categorical thinking
Innate drive to understand and anticipate others’ behaviour
Enhances our self-concept

35

Social identity and self-enhancement reinforce stereotyping through

Categorisation, Homogenisation, Differentiation

36

Categorisation:

organise people into groups

37

To assign similar traits within a group; different traits to other groups is

Homogenisation

38

Differentiation process:

is to assign less favourable attributes to other groups

39

Stereotyping problems

Overgeneralises, i.e. does not represent everyone in the category
Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination

40

Attribution Process is comprised of 2 Attributions

Internal and external

41

Internal Attribution

Perception that behaviour is caused by person’s own motivation or ability

42

External attribution

Perception that behaviour is caused by situation or fate—beyond person’s control

43

The 2 Attribution rules

Consistency, Distinctiveness, Consensus

44

How often did the person act this way in the past?

Consistency

45

Distinctiveness:

How often does the person act this way in other settings

46

How often do other peoples act this way in similar situations

Consensus.

47

Attribution Errors

Self-serving bias
Fundamental attribution error

48

Attributing own actions to internal and external factors and others’ actions to internal factors is know as

Fundamental attribution error

49

Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors is known as

Self-serving bias

50

What is the perceptual process in which our expectations about another person cause that person to act more consistently with those expectations

Self-fulfilling prophecy

51

What are the 4 Steps in Self-fulfilling prophecy?

1 Supervisor forms expectation about employee
2 Supervisors expectations affect their attitude towards employee
3 Supervisor's behaviour affects employees abilities and self-confidence
4 Employees behaviour becomes consistent with supervisors expectations

52

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect is Strongest

At the beginning of the relationship (e.g. employee joins the team)
When several people have similar expectations about the person
When the employee has low rather than high past achievement

53

Other Perceptual Effects

Halo effect
False-consensus effect
Primacy effect
Recency effect

54

What is the perceptual error in which our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colours our perception of other characteristics of that person

Halo effect

55

What is the perceptual error in which we overestimate the extent to which other have beliefs and characteristics that are similar to our own

False-consensus effect

56

What is the perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of the person based on the first information we receive of them

Primacy effect

57

What is the perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates our perceptions of others

Recency effect

58

Awareness of perceptual biases, Improving self-awareness, Meaningful interaction are all

Strategies to Improve Perceptions

59

What process provides employees the opportunity to provide each other with feedback regarding their behaviour and offers disclosure as a way to improve perception

Johari Window

60

Contact Hypothesis

A theory that implies more we interact with someone the less we will be prejudiced or perceptually biased towards that person

61

An individual's ability to perceive, appreciate and empathises with people from other cultures and to process complex cross-cutual information

Global mindset.