Week 5 Applied Performance Practices Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5 Applied Performance Practices Deck (74):
1

_____ (and other Financial rewards) are a fundamental part of _____ relationship

Money, employment

2

Financial rewards are also associated with our

needs, emotions and self-concepts.

3

Money is widely viewed as a symbol of

Power
Status
Prestige

4

Money is widely viewed as a source of

Security
Evil
Anxiety and feelings of inadequacy

5

Pay has multiple meanings

Symbol of success
Reinforcer and motivator
Reflection of performance
Can reduce anxiety

6

Types of Rewards in the Workplace

Membership and seniority
Job status
Competencies
Task performance

7

Membership/Seniority Based Rewards advantages

Attract job applicants
Reduce turnover

8

Membership/Seniority Based Rewards disadvantages

Do not motivate high performance
Discourage poor performers from leaving

9

Job Status-Based Rewards Advantages:

Includes job evaluation and status perks
Job evaluation tries to maintain fairness (pay equity)
Motivates competition for promotions

10

Job Status-Based Rewards Disadvantages:

Encourages bureaucratic hierarchy
Might undermine cost-efficiency and responsiveness
Reinforces status mentality
Encourages competition, not collaboration

11

Pay increases with acquired and demonstrated competencies

Competency-Based Rewards

12

Competency-Based Rewards - Skill-based pay increases with

mastery of measurable skills (modules/training)

13

What is 1 Competency-Based Rewards advantage, and 1 disadvantage?

Advantages
More flexible workforce, better quality, consistent with employability
Disadvantages
Potentially subjective, higher training costs

14

Systematically rating the worth of jobs within an organisation by measuring their effort, responsibility and working conditions.

Job evaluation.

15

Performance-Based Rewards

Individual rewards
Team rewards
Organisational rewards

16

Bonuses, commissions and piece rates are all typical

Individual rewards

17

Bonuses and gainsharing are both

Team rewards

18

Profit sharing, share ownership, stock options and balanced scorecards (BSC) are all types of

Organisational rewards

19

Team-based rewards that calculate bonuses from the cost savings of the work unit and productivity improvement.

Gainsharing plans:

20

Employee share ownership plan (eSOp):

an organisational reward system that encourages employees to buy company shares.

21

An organisational reward system that pays bonuses to employees on the basis of the previous year’s level of corporate profits.

Profit-sharing plan:

22

An organisational reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price.

Share options:

23

Positive effects of Organisational Rewards

Creates an ‘ownership culture’
Adjusts pay with firm’s prosperity

24

Concerns with performance pay - Organisational Rewards

Weak connections between individual effort and rewards
Reward amounts affected by external forces

25

Keys to improving Reward Effectiveness

Link rewards to performance
Ensure rewards are relevant
Team rewards for interdependent jobs
Ensure rewards are valued
Watch out for unintended consequences

26

Th process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs

Job Design

27

Organisation's goal—

to create jobs that can be performed efficiently, yet employees are motivated and engaged

28

The result of a division of labour where work is subdivided into separate jobs and assigned to different people

Job specialisation

29

The practice of systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardising tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.

Scientific management

30

Examples of Scientific management

Frederick Winslow Taylor
Advocated job specialisation
Taylor also emphasised person-job matching, training, goal setting, work incentives

31

Job Specialisation advantages

Less time changing activities
Lower training costs
Job mastered quickly
Better person-job matching

32

Job Specialisation disadvantages

Job boredom
Discontentment pay
Higher costs
Lower quality
Lower motivation

33

_____ is now the central focus of many job _____ changes

Motivation, design

34

Interventions popularised by Frederick Winslow Taylor

Training
Goal setting
Work incentives

35

Herzberg's theory stating that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower level needs.

Motivator-Hygiene Theory

36

According to Herzberg, the opposite of _____ is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of _____ is “No Dissatisfaction”.

“Satisfaction” , “Dissatisfaction”

37

This theory proposes that employees experience job satisfaction when they fulfil growth and esteem needs (motivators), and experience dissatisfaction when they have poor working conditions (hygienes)

Motivator-Hygiene Theory

38

Herzberg argues that only characteristics of the job itself _____ employees, whereas _____ factors, whereas the motivators merely prevent _____..

motivate, hygiene, dissatisfaction

39

the Job Characteristics Model identifies five core job dimensions that produce three psychological states

Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Autonomy
Job Feedback

40

The three psychological states are

experienced Meaningfulness
experienced of Responsibility
and Knowledge of results

41

____ ____ refers to the use of different skills and talents to complete a variety of work activities.

Skill variety

42

_____ _____ is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work, such as assembling an entire broadband modem rather than just soldering in the circuitry.

Task identity

43

_____ _____ is the degree to which the job affects the organisation and/or greater society.

Task significance

44

Jobs with high levels of _____ provide freedom, _____ and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used to complete the work. In autonomous jobs, employees make their own decisions rather than relying on detailed instructions from supervisors or procedure manuals.

Autonomy, independence

45

The degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of direct sensory information from the job itself.

Job feedback

46

Individual differences included in the Job characteristics model

Knowledge and skill
Context satisfaction
Growth-need strength

47

The ___ ____ ___ is a template for job _____ that specifies ____ job dimensions, _______ states and ______ differences

Job Characteristics Model, redesign, core, psychological, individual.

48

Contemporary job design strategies that attempt to motivate employees

Job rotation
Job enlargement
Job enrichment

49

Job rotation reduces _____ and develops a more _____ workforce, and reduces the incident of _____ strain injuries.

boredom, flexible, repetitive

50

Job enlargement

Increases the number of tasks within the job

51

Jobs can be enriched by

clustering tasks into natural groups and establishing client relationships.

52

The practice of giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating and planning their own work.

Job enrichment.

53

Empowerment is a psychological concept represented by these four dimensions

Self-determinations
Meaning
Competence
Impact

54

Employees feel they have freedom and discretion -

Empowerment Practices - Self-determinations

55

Empowerment Practices - Meaning

Employees believe their work is important

56

Empowerment Practices - Competence

Employees have feelings of self-efficacy

57

Empowerment Practices - Impact

Employees feel their actions influence success

58

These factors:
Individual
Possess required competencies, able to perform the work
Job design
Autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback
Organisational
Resources, learning orientation, trust
are all characteristics that

Supporting Empowerment

59

The process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task

Self-Leadership

60

Self-Leadership includes concepts and practices from:

Goal setting
Social learning theory
Sports psychology

61

Elements of Self-Leadership

Personal goal setting
Constructive thought patterns
Designing natural rewards
Self-monitoring
Self-reinforcement

62

Personal goal setting:

Employees set their own goals
Apply effective goal setting practices

63

Positive self-talk:

Talking to ourselves about thoughts and actions
Potentially increases self-efficacy

64

Mental imagery:

Mentally practising a task
Visualising successful task completion

65

Finding ways to make the job itself more motivating

E.g. altering the way the task is accomplished

66

Keeping track of your progress toward the self-set goal

Looking for naturally-occurring feedback
Designing artificial feedback

67

'Taking’ a reinforcer only after completing a self-set goal
(examples)

E.g. watching a movie after writing two more sections of a report
E.g. starting a fun task after completing a task that you do not like

68

Self-Leadership Contingencies - Individual factors


Higher levels of conscientiousness and extroversion
Positive self-evaluation (self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal locus)

69

Self-Leadership Contingencies - Organisational factors


Job autonomy
Participative leadership
Measurement-oriented culture

70

_____ _____ relate to our needs, emotions and self-concepts

Financial rewards

71

Organisations reward for membership and seniority, job status, competencies and performance

membership, seniority

72

Job design (e.g. job specialisation, enlargement and enrichment) is the process of assigning tasks to a job in ways that can _____ _____ and _____

increase performance and motivation

73

Empowered people experience more _____-_____, meaning, competence and _____ regarding their role in the organisation

self- determination, impact

74

_____-_____ is the process of influencing oneself to establish the _____-_____ and _____-_____ needed to perform a task

Self-leadership, self-direction, self-motivation.