Flashcards in Week 5 Applied Performance Practices Deck (74):
_____ (and other Financial rewards) are a fundamental part of _____ relationship
Financial rewards are also associated with our
needs, emotions and self-concepts.
Money is widely viewed as a symbol of
Money is widely viewed as a source of
Anxiety and feelings of inadequacy
Pay has multiple meanings
Symbol of success
Reinforcer and motivator
Reflection of performance
Can reduce anxiety
Types of Rewards in the Workplace
Membership and seniority
Membership/Seniority Based Rewards advantages
Attract job applicants
Membership/Seniority Based Rewards disadvantages
Do not motivate high performance
Discourage poor performers from leaving
Job Status-Based Rewards Advantages:
Includes job evaluation and status perks
Job evaluation tries to maintain fairness (pay equity)
Motivates competition for promotions
Job Status-Based Rewards Disadvantages:
Encourages bureaucratic hierarchy
Might undermine cost-efficiency and responsiveness
Reinforces status mentality
Encourages competition, not collaboration
Pay increases with acquired and demonstrated competencies
Competency-Based Rewards - Skill-based pay increases with
mastery of measurable skills (modules/training)
What is 1 Competency-Based Rewards advantage, and 1 disadvantage?
More flexible workforce, better quality, consistent with employability
Potentially subjective, higher training costs
Systematically rating the worth of jobs within an organisation by measuring their effort, responsibility and working conditions.
Bonuses, commissions and piece rates are all typical
Bonuses and gainsharing are both
Profit sharing, share ownership, stock options and balanced scorecards (BSC) are all types of
Team-based rewards that calculate bonuses from the cost savings of the work unit and productivity improvement.
Employee share ownership plan (eSOp):
an organisational reward system that encourages employees to buy company shares.
An organisational reward system that pays bonuses to employees on the basis of the previous year’s level of corporate profits.
An organisational reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price.
Positive effects of Organisational Rewards
Creates an ‘ownership culture’
Adjusts pay with firm’s prosperity
Concerns with performance pay - Organisational Rewards
Weak connections between individual effort and rewards
Reward amounts affected by external forces
Keys to improving Reward Effectiveness
Link rewards to performance
Ensure rewards are relevant
Team rewards for interdependent jobs
Ensure rewards are valued
Watch out for unintended consequences
Th process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs
to create jobs that can be performed efficiently, yet employees are motivated and engaged
The result of a division of labour where work is subdivided into separate jobs and assigned to different people
The practice of systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardising tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.
Examples of Scientific management
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Advocated job specialisation
Taylor also emphasised person-job matching, training, goal setting, work incentives
Job Specialisation advantages
Less time changing activities
Lower training costs
Job mastered quickly
Better person-job matching
Job Specialisation disadvantages
_____ is now the central focus of many job _____ changes
Interventions popularised by Frederick Winslow Taylor
Herzberg's theory stating that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower level needs.
According to Herzberg, the opposite of _____ is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of _____ is “No Dissatisfaction”.
“Satisfaction” , “Dissatisfaction”
This theory proposes that employees experience job satisfaction when they fulfil growth and esteem needs (motivators), and experience dissatisfaction when they have poor working conditions (hygienes)
Herzberg argues that only characteristics of the job itself _____ employees, whereas _____ factors, whereas the motivators merely prevent _____..
motivate, hygiene, dissatisfaction
the Job Characteristics Model identifies five core job dimensions that produce three psychological states
The three psychological states are
experienced of Responsibility
and Knowledge of results
____ ____ refers to the use of different skills and talents to complete a variety of work activities.
_____ _____ is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work, such as assembling an entire broadband modem rather than just soldering in the circuitry.
_____ _____ is the degree to which the job affects the organisation and/or greater society.
Jobs with high levels of _____ provide freedom, _____ and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used to complete the work. In autonomous jobs, employees make their own decisions rather than relying on detailed instructions from supervisors or procedure manuals.
The degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of direct sensory information from the job itself.
Individual differences included in the Job characteristics model
Knowledge and skill
The ___ ____ ___ is a template for job _____ that specifies ____ job dimensions, _______ states and ______ differences
Job Characteristics Model, redesign, core, psychological, individual.
Contemporary job design strategies that attempt to motivate employees
Job rotation reduces _____ and develops a more _____ workforce, and reduces the incident of _____ strain injuries.
boredom, flexible, repetitive
Increases the number of tasks within the job
Jobs can be enriched by
clustering tasks into natural groups and establishing client relationships.
The practice of giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating and planning their own work.
Empowerment is a psychological concept represented by these four dimensions
Employees feel they have freedom and discretion -
Empowerment Practices - Self-determinations
Empowerment Practices - Meaning
Employees believe their work is important
Empowerment Practices - Competence
Employees have feelings of self-efficacy
Empowerment Practices - Impact
Employees feel their actions influence success
Possess required competencies, able to perform the work
Autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback
Resources, learning orientation, trust
are all characteristics that
The process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task
Self-Leadership includes concepts and practices from:
Social learning theory
Elements of Self-Leadership
Personal goal setting
Constructive thought patterns
Designing natural rewards
Personal goal setting:
Employees set their own goals
Apply effective goal setting practices
Talking to ourselves about thoughts and actions
Potentially increases self-efficacy
Mentally practising a task
Visualising successful task completion
Finding ways to make the job itself more motivating
E.g. altering the way the task is accomplished
Keeping track of your progress toward the self-set goal
Looking for naturally-occurring feedback
Designing artificial feedback
'Taking’ a reinforcer only after completing a self-set goal
E.g. watching a movie after writing two more sections of a report
E.g. starting a fun task after completing a task that you do not like
Self-Leadership Contingencies - Individual factors
Higher levels of conscientiousness and extroversion
Positive self-evaluation (self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal locus)
Self-Leadership Contingencies - Organisational factors
_____ _____ relate to our needs, emotions and self-concepts
Organisations reward for membership and seniority, job status, competencies and performance
Job design (e.g. job specialisation, enlargement and enrichment) is the process of assigning tasks to a job in ways that can _____ _____ and _____
increase performance and motivation
Empowered people experience more _____-_____, meaning, competence and _____ regarding their role in the organisation
self- determination, impact