Week 9 Chapter 10 Power and Influence in the Workplace Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 9 Chapter 10 Power and Influence in the Workplace Deck (56):
1

Definition: The capacity of a person, team or organisation to influence others, It exists when one party perceives that he or she is dependent on the other for something

Power

2

Power is not the act of someone's attitude or behavior it is only the ______ to do so.

Power is based on the target's ______ that the power holder controls. Power involves an unequal _____ of one party on another.

potential, perception, dependence

3

Definition: The capacity of a person, team or organisation to keep a more powerful person, or group, in an exchange relationship

Countervailing power

Power relationships depend on some minimum level of trust – a level of expectation that the more powerful party will deliver the resource.

4

A model of power in organisations; there are 5 sources of power:

Legitimate
Reward
Coercive
Expert and
Referent

That all have the ability to hold power over others
BUT
There are 4 contingencies of power

5

Three sources of power (_____, _____, and _____) originate mostly from the power holder’s formal position/informal role while the other two (expert and referent) originate mostly from the power holder’s own characteristics.

legitimate, reward and coercive

6

an agreement among organisational members that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others. This originates from formal job descriptions as well as informal rules of conduct, and operates with a ‘zone of indifference'.

legitimate

7

Name that source of power

Power deriving from a person’s ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove negative sanctions

Reward power

8

Name that source of power

The ability to apply punishment is the _____ power
Exists upward as well as downward
Peer pressure is a form of coercive power

Coercive

9

Name that source of power

The capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value
More employee expert power over companies in knowledge economy

Expert Power

10

Name that source of power

The capacity to influence others on the basis of an identification and respect with the power holder. This is usually associated with charismatic leadership.

Referent power

11

Information and power

- People gain information power when they _____ the flow of information to others. In highly bureaucratic companies, _____ information flow is common.
- _____ information flow occurs when no one has control over the flow of information.

control, centralised, Decentralised

12

Definition: Degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder and others.

Centrality
-is a function of:
How many others are affected by you
How quickly others are affected by you

13

Other forms of information power occur when a person or work unit has the ability (real or perceived) to manage environmental uncertainties. This is a derivative of expert power.

There are three general strategies to help organisations cope with uncertainty:

1. Prevention:
the most effective strategy – e.g. finance employees prevent cash flow issues
2. Forecasting:
the next best strategy – e.g. marketing people predict customer preferences
3. Absorption:
absorbing or neutralising the impact of environmental shifts after they have occurred – e.g. maintenance crews fix broken equipment

14

Definition: the range within which people are willing to accept someone else’s authority.

zone of indifference

The size of the zone increases with the extent that the power holder is trusted and makes fair decisions. Some people are also more obedient that others to authority – people who value conformity or tradition, or are from high power-distance cultures, are more obedient. Organisational culture also plays a role in this.

15

What are the four contingencies of power

substitutability
centrality
discretion
visibility

16

Name that contingency of power

a contingency of power pertaining to the availability of alternatives.

This pertains to the availability of alternatives.
Power decreases as the number of alternative sources of the critical resource increases. Controlling access to valued resources increases non-substitutability. Non-substitutability also occurs when people differentiate their resource from alternatives.

substitutability

17

Name that contingency of power

A contingency of power pertaining to the degree and nature of interdependence between the power holder and others
– e.g. when a power holder has high centrality, many people in the organisation would be quickly affected if the power holder was absent.

centrality

Centrality is a function of:
How many others are affected by you
How quickly others are affected by you

18

Name that contingency of power

freedom to exercise judgement.

If a power holder lacks discretionary power, this reduces their power
– e.g. middle management lacking the discretionary power to make decisions does not have much power.

Discretion

19

Name that contingency of power

Those who control valued resources or knowledge will only have power when others are aware of the source of the power.

visibility

20

Discretion characteristics

The freedom to exercise judgment
Rules limit discretion, limit power
Also a perception—acting as if you have discretion

21

Visibility Characteristics

Symbols communicate your power source(s)
Educational diplomas
Clothing, etc. (stethoscope around neck)
Salience
Location—others are more aware of your presence

22

Consequences of power

Having power affects the power holder’s feelings of self-_____, meaning, competence and impact in the _____. It also tends to increase feelings of _____ which increases motivation, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and job performance. More powerful people are more _____-oriented and tend to act on the environment rather than hide from it. However, increased power can potentially undermine an individual’s _____ and personal relationships.

determination, organisation, empowerment, goal, effectiveness

23

Influencing others

Definition: any behaviour that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviour.

Influence

24

Types of influence tactics

The first five tactics are ‘_____’ influence tactics because they force behavioural change through position power.


hard

25

There are 8 types of influence tactics

silent authority
assertiveness
information control
coalition formation
upward appeal
persuasion
ingratiation / impression management
exchange

26

Name that type of influence tactic

Definition: any behaviour that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviour

Occurs when someone complies with a request because of the requester’s legitimate power as well as the target person’s role expectations andInfluencing behavior through legitimate power without explicitly referring to that power base is what type of influence tactic

Silent authority (deference to authority)

It is considered to be weakest from of authority and is the most common form of influence in high power-distance cultures.

27

Name that type of influence tactic

Involves actively applying legitimate and coercive power to influence others often through applying/threatening to apply punishment if the target person does not comply.

Assertiveness influence tactic

28

Name that type of influence tactic

Involves explicitly manipulating others’ access to _____ for the purpose of changing their attitudes and/or behaviour. It draws on the principal of scarcity – individuals who hold scarce resources are more powerful. It is also linked to the idea that we are influenced by what other people do in similar situations (social proof).

information control influence tactic

Information

29

Name that type of influence tactic

When a group that attempts to influence people outside the group (more people more power) by pooling the resources and power of its members.

Upward appeal:

Coalition formation
- may also symbolise the legitimacy of the issue and taps into the power of the social identity process

30

Name that type of influence tactic

A type of influence in which someone with higher authority or expertise is call on (in reality or symbolically) to support the influencer’s position.

Upward Appeal

Appealing to higher authority
Includes appealing to firm’s goals
Alliance or perceived alliance with higher status person

31

Name that type of influence tactic

One of the most effective influence strategies for career success. The message is more important than the messenger when the issue is important to the audience. Message content can be even more persuasive when the audience is warned about opposing arguments; this is known as the _____.


Persuasion:

Logic, facts, emotional appeals
Depends on persuader, message content, message medium, audience

32

Defined: a persuasive communication strategy of warning listeners that others will try to influence them in the future and that they should be wary about the opponent’s arguments.

inoculation effect

33

There are two other considerations that play a role in persuasion: medium of communication and characteristics of the audience.

Generally, face-to-face conversations work better, and it can be difficult to persuade people who have high self-esteem and intelligence, or have targeted attitudes closely connected to their self-identity.

34

The last three tactics are ‘_____’ influence tactics because they rely more on personal sources of power, and appeal to the target person’s attitudes and needs. This is not a definitive list but the most commonly identified influence tactics:

soft

35

using logical arguments, factual evidence, and emotional appeals to convince people of the value of a request. is what type of influence tactic?

this is the most commonly used influence tactic

Persuasion

36

Name that type of influence tactic

Refers to any attempt to increase liking by, or perceived similarity to, some targeted person. While _____ can be effective, people who engage in high levels are less influential and less likely to get promoted as they are viewed as insincere and self-serving. Ingratiation is part of a larger influence technique: impression management

Women tend to use strategies associated with likeability while men tend to use strategies associated with competence.

Ingratiation and impression management:

37

Name that type of influence tactic

Involves the promise of benefits or resources in ______ for the target person’s compliance. This may also include reminders of past benefits or favours. Negotiation is an integral part of this tactic.


Exchange: i

38

The five organisational currencies that can be used in exchange

Task-related currencies
Position-related currencies
Inspiration-related currencies
Relationship-related currencies
Personal-related currencies

39

Name that organisational currency

Describe resources that focus on task completion , such as larger budgets, information and effort for work completion

Task-related currencies:

40

Name that organisational currency

Offers possibility of promotion, recognition of achievements and skills, increased visibility or contacts.

Position-related currencies:

41

Name that organisational currency.

Offers opportunity to behave ethically, contribute to a greater good, or display excellence.

Inspiration-related currencies:

42

Name that organisational currency.

The use of personal concerns such as the need for acceptance and growth by offering friendship, personal support and empathy.

Relationship-related currencies:

43

Name that organisational currency
Offers challenges, opportunity to influence others and appreciation.

Personal-related currencies:

44

Consequences and contingencies of influence tactics


There are three ways that people react when others try to influence them:

Resistance
Compliance
Commitment

1. Resistance: people/work units opposed the behaviour desired by the influencer.

2. Compliance: people are motivated to implement the influencer’s request at a minimal level of effort and for instrumental reasons.

3. Commitment: the strongest form of influence when people identify with the influencer’s request and are highly motivated to implement it.
People generally react more favourably to ‘soft’ tactics than to ‘hard’ tactics.

45

The most appropriate strategy for _____ tactics also depends on other contingencies:
- Which sources of power are strongest – those with expertise tend to have more influence using persuasion
- Whether the person being influenced is high, lower or at the same level in the organisation as the person trying to influence
- Personal, organisational and cultural values

influence

46

Power and influence through social networks

Social networking:

cultivating social relationships with others to accomplish one’s goals.

47

Power and influence through social networks

Social networks generate power through _____ _____: the goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in a social network.



Social capital

48

Power and influence through social networks

Understanding and analysing networks

Three ways that a network can benefit individuals:

1. Access: obtain information more readily
2. Timing: get information earlier
3. Referrals: others in the network think of you first when making recommendations for key positions or promotions; this is tied to position-related currencies and visibility.

49

Power and influence through social networks

Strong ties, weak ties, many ties

The volume of information, favours and other social capital increases with number of people connected to a network (breadth), but the more people connected, the less time and energy an individual has to form ‘strong ties’ or close-knit relationships. However, strong ties are not necessarily the most valuable as having weak ties with people form diverse networks can be more valuable than having strong ties with people in similar networks.

Breadth

50

Social networks can increase:

Expert power (gaining knowledge from others)
Visibility
Referent power

51

Three factors in centrality:

Shortest path between others: you control _____ of others
Direct access to others: less _____ on others for connections
Number of people connected to you: more social capital _____

interactions, dependence, resources

52

Building and Maintaining Networks

We often build networks according to self-_____ and ____.
However, it is more effective to build networks according to shared activities and apply _____ considerations (access to additional networks, key persons etc.)
We also need to consider the dark side of our networks and how inclusive or unfairly exclusive they are

similarity, proximity, strategic

53

Influence tactics and organisational politics

_____ _____: behaviours that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of other people and possibly the organisation.

Organisational politics

54

Organisational politics are in the eye of the beholder because they are based on perceptions rather than behaviours. Organisational politics tends to reduce job _____, organisational commitment, organisational _____ and increase levels of work-related stress.

satisfaction, citizenship

55

Conditions that are supportive of organisational politics

Scarce resources
Ambiguous resource allocation decisions
Complex, or lack of, formal rules – this can occur during times of organisational change

56

Minimising organisational politics and its consequences
o Introduce clear rules and regulations to specify the use of _____ resources
o _____ organisational change practices
o Leadership effectiveness
o Giving employees more control over work and keeping them informed of _____ events.

scarce, Effective, organisational