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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (52)
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1
Q

Name 3 primary bone cancers

A

osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma,

2
Q

commonest sites for chondrosarcoma

A

pelvis, proximal and distal femur

3
Q

CT can show soft tissue and bones, true or false

A

true

4
Q

xrays can show soft tissue, true or false

A

false

5
Q

C3-C7, T1-T12, L1-L5 vertebrae components

A

a vertebral body
2 pedicles
2 laminae
1 spinous process
2 transverse processes

6
Q

does C1 (atlas) have a vertebral body

A

no

7
Q

which vertebrae has an odontoid process aka dens

A

C2

8
Q

which imaging is more sensitive for spine - xray or CT?

A

CT. but usually we see most fractures on xray. if we need more detail we go CT.

9
Q

what does normal vertebral alignment on imaging imply?

A

intact intervertebral ligaments and a stable spine

10
Q

what does abnormal vertebral alignment on imaging imply

A

intervertebral ligament damage and an unstable spine

11
Q

which type of imaging allows ligaments to be seen

A

MRI

12
Q

what colour are normal ligaments on MRI

A

black

13
Q

what colour are damaged ligaments on MRI

A

light

14
Q

give examples of soft tissue abnormalities that may be seen on MRI (that are not picked up on xray and ct) - spine stuff

A

acute prolapsed intervertebral disc
epidural haematoma
spinal cord damage

15
Q

what symptoms would acute prolapsed intervertebral disc show

A

lower back pain
numbness or tingling in shoulders, back, arms, hands, legs or feet
neck pain
problems bending/straightening back
muscle weakness
sciatic

16
Q

MRI findings in vertebral tumours

A

early - bone marrow infiltration
late - extradural mass and spinal cord compression

17
Q

function of intervertebral discs

A

cushion the vertebrae from stress/absorb shock

18
Q

do healthy intervertebral discs contain water?

A

yes

19
Q

can you see intervertebral discs on xray?

A

no, because they are soft tissue

20
Q

can CT show lower lumbar disc prolapse

A

yes

21
Q

which type of imaging can show all types of disc prolapse

A

MRI

22
Q

can MRI see dehydration of intervertebral discs

A

yes

23
Q

what may follow intervertebral disc dehydration?

A

disc prolapse

24
Q

can you see the spinal cord on xrays

A

no

25
Q

how well can you see the spinal cord on CT

A

poorly

26
Q

which imaging adequately shows the spinal cord

A

MRI

27
Q

causes of spinal cord disease

A

trauma
tumour
demyelination
ischaemia

28
Q

if soft tissue disorder of the spine suspected, what imaging should we do?

A

MRI

29
Q

classification of bone tumour

A

bone-forming
cartilage-forming
others

30
Q

what is the commonest primary tumour of the bone

A

multiple myeloma

31
Q

risk factors for primary bone tumours

A

previous radiotherapy
predisposing conditions e.g. pagets
genetic - e.g. Li Fraumeni (p53)

32
Q

what is the most common primary sarcoma of bone?

A

osteosarcoma

33
Q

what ages does osteosarcoma present?

A

children/young adults
elderly (pagets)

34
Q

osteosarcoma treatment

A

chemo and limb salvage

35
Q

what age group does Ewing’s Sarcoma affect?

A

5-25yrs (young people)

36
Q

what age group does chondrosarcoma affect

A

older (45-70yrs)

37
Q

what is chondrosarcoma

A

malignancy of chondrocytes (cartilage cells)

38
Q

is osteoid osteoma benign or malignant

A

benign

39
Q

what age group get osteoid osteoma?

A

young people (5-25yrs)

40
Q

can osteoid osteomas resolve spontaneously

A

yes. can treat with radiofrequency ablation though

41
Q

what can enchondroma and chondrosarcomas look like on xray

A

popcorn

42
Q

another name for diaphysis of the bone

A

shaft

43
Q

if periosteum is involved on xray, what does that suggest about rate of bone tumour growth?

A

fast growing. sunburst appearance

44
Q

red flags for bone pain

A

increasing
persistent
worse at night
atraumatic

45
Q

where is a primary bone tumour most likely to metastasise to

A

lungs

46
Q

reasons for hip replacement

A

pain
pain
pain!

47
Q

some risks of hip replacement

A

infection
blood loss
thrombosis
nerve damage
dislocation
limp

48
Q

if a young patient is getting a hip replacement, what materials may be used so that it lasts longer?

A

ceramic on ceramic

49
Q

who may get resurfacing instead of hip replacement?

A

Andy Murray (males under 40s, especially if they have high functional demands)

50
Q

what condition might carpet fitters get because of all the kneeling?

A

bursitis

51
Q

what imaging can be useful if suspecting meniscal tear?

A

MRI

52
Q

what age group does Osgood-Schlatter’s affect

A

teenagers