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Flashcards in WEEK 5 Deck (60):
1

4 types of cells in bone tissue

Osteogenic cell, Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Osteoclast

2

Function of Osteoblasts

Immature bone building cells
Secrete bone matrix

3

Function of Osteocytes

Maintain the bone matrix
Repair damaged bone

4

Function of Osteoclasts

Secrete acids and protein digesting enzymes that break down bone matrix

5

What percentage of bone mass is compact bone?

75-80%

6

What are the 6 main elements of compact bone?

Osteon
Concentric Lamellae
Central Canal
Perforating Canals
Lacunae
Canaliculi

7

What percentage of body mass is spongy bone?

20-25%

8

2 things spongy bone does not have, in comparison to compact bone

Osteons
blood vessels

9

What do bones begin as?

Hyaline cartilage

10

What is the strongest type of cartilage?

Fibrocartilage

11

What are 4 functions of cartilage?

Forms the embryonic skeleton
Covers the ends of bones
Provides support and flexibility in tubes such as trachea, nose and ears
Provides cushioning to joints

12

What are the 4 major bones shapes?

Long
Flat
Irregular (vertebrate, bones in face)
Short

13

What are the 2 divisions of the skeleton? How many bones?

Axial (80)
Appendicular (126)

14

The bones of the skull can be divided into which 2 categories?

Cranial
(bones that protect the brain)
Facial
(bones that form the face)

15

What are the 4 cranial bones?

Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, Occipitial

16

What are the 4 facial bones?

Nasal, Zygomatic, Maxilla, Mandible

17

What is the Foramen Magnum

Space for spinal cord to enter the skull

18

How many bones are in the vertebral column? What are they?

26
24 vertebrae
Sacrum
Coccyx

19

What are the 5 regiones of the vertebral column?

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

20

What are the 2 primary curves in the vertebrae?

Thoracic and sacral

21

What are the 2 secondary curves in the vertebrae?

Cervical
Lumbar

22

What are the 5 parts of the vertebra and their functions?

Vertebral body
bears weight

Vertebral foramen
opening that contains the spinal cord

Transverse processes
articulation with the ribs in the thoracic region

Spinous process
muscles and ligaments attach to stabalize spine

Superior and inferior articular processes
articulating surfaces between vertebrae

23

How many vertebrae in the neck?

7

24

Thoracic vertebrae

Articulation with ribs
Large spinous process for muscle attachment

25

Lumbar vertebrae

Lower back
Large vertebral body for bearing weight

26

Sacrum

Fusion of 5 vertebrae
Protects reproductive, urinary and digestive organs
attaches to axial skeleton to the pelvic girdle
attaches broad muscles that move the thigh

27

Thorax

Chest skeleton

28

Thorax functions

Supports thoracic cavity
Protects organs contained
attaches muscles

29

How many pairs of ribs?

12

30

Pectoral girdle

Attaches upper limbs to axial skeleton, consists of 2 pairs of bones (clavicles and scapulae)

31

Bones in forearm

radius and ulna

32

How many carpals in wrist?

8

33

How many metacarpals in hand?

5

34

Upper arm bone

humerus

35

interosseous membrane

stabilizes forearms movement

36

Two hip bones can also be called

innomintae bones

37

How are innominate bones joined?

Anteriorly by the pubic symphysis and posteriorly to the sacrum

38

Patella

knee cap

39

How many metatarsals in the foot?

5

40

Bones in lower leg

tibia and fibula

41

What are the 7 parts of long bones?

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
metaphysis
articular cartilage
medullary cavity
periosteum
edosteum

42

Metaphysis

Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet. Contains the epiphyseal plate (cartilage growth plate)

43

Diaphysis

The shaft formed by compact bone. Central space is the medullary cavity

44

Epiphysis

distal and proximal ends of long bones
mostly spongy bone covered by thin layer of compact one

45

Articular cartilage

covers surface where bones meet reducing friction

46

Periosteum

Covers outer surface of bone

47

Outer fibrous layer

carries blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves

48

Inner cellular layer

Contains blood vessel and osteoblasts involved in bone growth and repair

49

Endosteum

Lines the surface of spongy bone and the central canals of compact bone
contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
surface for bone growth and remodeling

50

What 4 situations is bone formed?

Initial formation of bones in the embryo and fetus
Growth of bones in infancy, childhood and adolesence
remodeling of bone (replacement of old bone with new bone throughout life)
repair of fractures

51

How is bone a dynamic tissue?

osteoclasts are constantly breaking down bone( bone resorption)
Osteoblasts are constantly adding new bone (bone deposition)

52

4 factors that affect the rate of ossification

Heredity
Nutrition
Endocrine
Exercise

53

Ossification

process of replacing other tissues with bone

54

2 types of ossification

Intramembranous and Enchondral

55

3 steps of intramembranous ossification

Connective tissue sheet is replaced by bone
osteoblasts secrete collagen matrix then calcium salts deposited
Responsible for the development of SOME flat bones (skull plates)

56

Functions of Fontanels

Allows skull to compress during passage through birth canal
permits rapid growth of the brain in infancy

57

5 steps of enchondral ossification

Cartilage model of bone is made
Membrane called perichondrium covers the model
Perichondrium is invaded by blood vessels and osteoblasts form within it
Osteoblasts begin producing compact bone matrix and minerals are deposited
Secondary ossification centers from in the epiphysis at about the time of birth

58

4 steps of bone growth in length

Proliferation zone, cartilage cells undergo mitosis
Hypertrophic zone, older cartilage cells enlarge
Calcification zone, matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, matrix begins deteriorating
ossification zone, new bone formation is occuring

59

Bone growth in width

Only grows in thickness at the bones surface
Periosteal cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bony ridges and then a tunnel around periosteal blood vessel
Concentric lamellae fill in the tunnel to form a new osteon

60

What are 4 types of common fractures

Close- no break in skin
Open- skin broken
Comminutes- Broken ends of bone are fragmented
Greenstick- Partial fracture