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Flashcards in Week 5: Core diagrams Deck (21)
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The Project Start Architecture (PSA)

- Ensures that new business developments and IT changes are realized in a cohesive manner and in line with organization-wide management goals.
- Translated the overall enterprise or domain architecture to the specific situation of the project.
When you drill-down the baseline architecture, you will get the project start architecture, and when you drill down on the target architecture you will get the to-be architecture.

What a project should bring in reaching the to-be architecture. Can be compared with a gap analysis. A project proposal should have PSA when it is in the IT project portfolio.


NOVIUS Diamond

Where you come up with priorities, principles, designs that will help with the EA.


Gaining Competitive Advantage from Enterprise Architecture

1. Build foundation to execute strategy
2. Define operating model
3. Implement operating model via EA.
4. Navigate the stages of enterprise maturity.
5. Cash in on the learning.
6. Build the foundation - one project at a time (IT engagement).
7. Exploit foundation for profitable growth
8. Leadership agenda.


Companies that did a digital transformation

- Schindlers elevators: from 'selling elevators' to 'moving people in buildings'.
- Philips: from 'making X-ray machines, lamps, and electric toothbrushes' to ' creating home centered healthcare'.
- Lego: from 'making toys' to 'transforming teaching and learning' by 'creating virtual building and educational communities'.


4 Key questions for digital transformation.

- What is our vision for improving the life of our customers?
- What is our strategic driver? (customer engagement vs digital solutions)
- What are our digital capabilities?
- How will we architect our business? (--> a strategy linkage)


Purpose of EA (diagrams)

To decide and communicate on high-level requirements for the foundation for execution in order to create shared understanding of how the company will operate.


Enterprise Architecture

- The organizing logic for business processes and IT infrastructure.
- The logic reflects the integration and standardization requirements of the company's operating model.
-> EA diagrams should not have much detail (EA core diagram).


Lower-level architectural layers

Fill in the details:
- Business process architecture -> key processes
- Data of information architecture -> shared data
- Application architecture -> apps and interfaces
- Technological architecture -> infra services and technology standards.


Enterprise Architecture Core diagram

A one-page picture representing a high-level view of:
- The core processes, data and technologies, that contribute the Foundation-for-Execution.
- The core diagram helps managers to discuss and understand their company's enterprise architecture.
- In particular the discussion between business and IT managers to clarify requirements (for business and IT).


Key components of the EA Core diagram

- Core business processes.
- Shared data driving core business processes.
- Key linking and automation technologies.
- Key customers


Key questions for deciding on the core diagram (= operating model questions)

- Do the units have shared customers?
- Do the units have shared processes?
- Do the units have shared data?
- Do the units have shared technologies?


4 types of EA core diagrams

- Coordination
- Replication
- Unification
- Diversification


Unification core diagram

1. Identifies the process for designing the EA core diagram for a unification company.
2. Start by identifying the customers.
3. List the key processes to be standardized and integrated.
4. Identify the shared data to better integrate the processes and serve the customers.
5. Automating and linking technologies can be shown.

Bottom of the diagram:
- Presents the EA core diagram.
- Reflects highly integrated and standardized environment.
- With standard processes, accessing shared data.
- Core diagram may or may not show technologies, dependent on their significance.


Diversification core diagram

- Low integration and low standardization.
- Each business unit is run independently.
1. Start with technologies that can be shared.
2. Incorporate processes, data, customer types only when needed for the operating model.


Coordination core diagram

- Integrated service to each customer group. Integration results from shared data for common face to the customer.
1. Start with key customers (segments, channels) to be shared.
2. Identify the key data that must be shared to serve the customers.
3. Identify the key technology that is key in data integration.
4. Consider to include business processes.


Replication core diagram

- Key processes are standardized and supported by IT.
1. Start with key processes to be standardized and replicated.
2. Identify the core technologies automating those key processes.
3. Consider the linking technologies (if any) that can be shared.
4. Usually it is not necessary to share data or identify key customers.


Value network

Functions of a value network:
- Define the full scope of capabilities that support the value proposition of the customer.
- Allow the enterprise to assess the set of capabilities that extends beyond the boundaries of the enterprise and the traditional value chain.
Focusses on different roles, namely, the enterprise, competitors, customers, suppliers, and intermediaries.


3 EA models according to McDonald

- Value Network diagram
- Capabilities diagram
- Capability blueprint


Value network diagram

Captures the scope of the enterprise in the form of actors and capabilities. Value network diagram is the highest-level model in EA, because it focusses on the network level. Mostly, a value network only represents one market with customer strategy.


Capabilities diagram

Outlines the relationships between capabilities, capturing scope and interfaces to network players. It introduces additional information on a firm level.


Capability blueprint

Defines the scope of capability in terms of its elements. This operates on the capability level.