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Flashcards in Week 9 Deck (21):
1

Earthquake

Vibration of the earth produced by a rapid release of energy

Ground shaking caused by rapid movement of one block slipping past another along fractures called faults

2

Hypocenter (focus)

Zone within the earth where rock placement produces an earthquake

3

Epicenter

Location on the earths surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

4

Elastic rebound

Sudden release of stored strain in rocks that results in movement along a fault

Breaks and returns to original shape

5

Liquefaction

Transformation of a stable soil into a fluid that is often unable to support buildings or other structures

6

Tsunami

Japanese word for seismic air wave

Caused by displacement of crust along a mega thrust fault in a subduction zone that suddenly lifts seafloor

7

Seismic waves

Form of energy that travels through the lithosphere

P waves: fastest, travels by compression and expansion

S waves : side to side shear waves. slower than P. Travels only in solids

Surface waves: seismic waves that travel along the outer layer of earth

8

Intensity

Measure or degree of earthquake shaking at a given scale based on the amount of damage

9

Magnitude

Estimate of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake based on seismic records

10

Modified mercali intensity scale

A 12 point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity based on amount of damage to various structures

11

Richter scale

A scale of earthquake magnitude based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave

12

Moment magnitude

A more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the Richter scale derived from the amount of displacement that occurs during a fault zone

13

How do strike slip and dip slip faults differ ( normal and reverse)

I

14

In what kind of plate tech tonic setting would you find a strike slip/ thrust fault

Transform

15

What is an earthquakes focus

Where the slippage begins

16

What is an earthquakes epicenter

Spot on the surface directly above the focus

17

Why are deep focus earthquakes concentrated in subduction zones

I

18

2 kinds seismic body waves: how do they differ

P and S
P is primary S is secondary.

P- slinky/ compress and expand. Change the volume of intervening material
S- rope/ changes shape of material.

19

Is magnitude the same as intensity/ explain

Intensity: amount of ground shaking based on damage.

Magnitude: measure of ground motion and energy

20

3 kinds of earthquake related hazards

Liquefaction
Landslides
Fire
Tsunami
Ground shaking

21

What an be done to minimize the danger of each hazard

I