Week One: Public Health (Chapter One) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week One: Public Health (Chapter One) Deck (55):
1

What are some things veterinarians and veterinary technicians are responsible for in human/public health and disease prevention?

Food safety
Environmental health
Prevention of zoonotic diseases
Control of zoonotic diseases
Human animal bond

2

Parasitism is most severe at what age in animals?

Younger than one year

3

What are some clinical signs associated with parasitism?

Life threatening anemia
Hypoproteinemia
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Intestinal obstruction
Interference with normal weight gain
Interference with milk production

4

What is symbiosis?

Living together between two different species or organisms
(Relationships can be beneficial, indifferent, or detrimental to one or more of the organisms living together)

5

What is phoresis (symbiosis phoresis)?

The smaller member of the relationship is mechanically carried about by the larger member

6

What type of relationship is this?
The bacterium Moraxella bovis, the etiologic agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis is mechanically carried from the eyes of one cow to those of another on the sticky foot pads of the face fly

Phoresis

7

What is mutualism?

Both organisms in the relationship benefit

8

What type of relationship is this?
Within the liquid rumen environment of the cow are millions of microscopic, swimming, unicellular, ciliated protozaons

Mutualism
(Cow provides a warm, liquid environment- Protozoa break down cellulose and aid in the digestion process)

9

What is commensalism?

An association in which one symbiont benefits and the other is neither benefited nor harmed

10

What type of relationship is this?
The relationship between the shark and the hitchhiker, remora

Commensalism
(Eats food scraps after the shark's meal- Remora benefits and the shark is neither harmed nor benefited)

11

What is parasitism?

An association between two organisms of differing species in which the parasite lives on or within the host
(May cause harm)
Parasite becomes metabolically dependent on the host)

12

What is the study of parasitic relationships?

Parasitology

13

What is parasitiasis?

The parasite is present on or within the host but the animal does not exhibit outward clinical signs of disease

14

What is parasitosis?

Parasite is present on or within the hose and the parasite produces obvious injury or harm to the animal host

Host exhibits obvious outward signs of clinical parasitism

15

What is an ectoparasite and what does it produce?

Lives on the body of the host
Produces an infestation on the host

16

What are some examples of ectoparasites?

Fleas
Lice
Ticks
Mites
Chiggers
Biting flies
Myiasis inducing flies (maggots)

17

What are siphonaptera?

Fleas
(siphon out blood)

18

Who do ctenocephalides felis infect?

Cats and dogs

19

Who do ctenocephalides canis infect?

Dogs

20

Who do echidnophaga gallinacean infect?

Poultry, cats, and dogs

21

What are mallophaga and who do they infect?

Chewing or biting lice
Bird and mammals

22

What are anoplura and who do they infect?

Sucking lice
Do not parasitize birds or cats

23

What are acarina? What are some characteristics of them?

Mites and ticks
Have two body parts

24

What are the body parts of acarina?

Capitulum (mouth parts/fusion of head and thorax)
Idiosoma (abdomen)

25

What are trombicula spp?

Chiggers
Suck up liquefied host tissues

26

What are stomoxys calcitrans?

stable/biting house fly

27

What are diptera?

Two winged flies
Larvae can cause a condition known as myiasis (maggot infestation)

28

What is an endoparasite and what does it produce?

Lives within the body of the host
Produces an infection within the host

29

What are some examples of endoparasites?

Nematodes
Cestodes
Trematodes
Protozoa
Acanthocephalans

30

What are chemical compounds?

Used to treat specific internal and external parasites

31

What do anthelmintics treat?

Roundworms, tapeworms, flukes, thorny-headed worms

32

What do acaricides treat?

Mites and ticks

33

What do insecticides treat?

Insects

34

What do antiprotozoals treat?

Protozoan organisms

35

Why are coccidian difficult to treat? What should you provide and avoid?

Hard to treat because they have complex life cycles and because of sanitation issues
-Provide clean food and water
-Avoid overcrowding
-Remove contaminated waste

36

What is an erratic parasite?

Wanders from its usual site of infection into an organ or location in which it does not ordinary live

37

What is an incidental parasite?

Occurs in a host in which it does not usually live

38

What is a facultative parasite?

Free living, non parasitic organisms become parasitic in certain hosts

39

What is an obligatory parasite?

Must lead a parasitic existence, not capable of leading a free living existence
(This is what most parasites are)

40

What is a periodic parasite?

Parasite can make frequent short visits to its host to obtain nourishment or other benefits
Does not have to live on or within a host

41

What is a definitive host?

Every parasite has at least one!
Where the parasite reproduces: harbors the adult, sexual, mature stages of parasite

42

Where are sexually mature male and female heartworms found in the dog?

Right ventricle and pulmonary arteries

43

What is an intermediate host?

Every parasite may have one or more intermediate hosts
This is the host that harbors larval, juvenile, immature, and asexual stages of a parasite

44

What type of host is this?
The female mosquito is the intermediate host for the larval or immature heartworms

Intermediate

45

What is a transport or paratenic host?

A parasite that does not undergo any development is encysted with the host's tissues

46

What is the reservoir host?

Vertebrate host in which a parasite or disease occurs in nature and is a source of infection for humans and domesticated animals

47

What type of host is this?
Wild wolves and coyotes may be reservoir hosts for heartworm, the infection is spread from wolf or coyote to the family pet by the mosquito intermediate host

Reservoir host

48

What are homoxenous/monoxenous parasites?

Will only infect one type of host

49

What is a euryxenous?

Parasite with a broad host range

50

What is zoonosis?

Any disease or parasite that is transmissible from animals to humans

51

What is the Linnaean classification scheme?
(Know in order)

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Specias

52

What does the genus name indicate?

Indicates the group to which a particular type of animal or plant belongs

53

What are the five kingdoms?

Planta, animalia (animals)*, Protista (unicellular organisms)*, monera (algae), and fungi

*KNOW

54

What are examples of animalia?

Platyhelminths
Cestodes
Nematodes
Acanthocephalans
Annelids
Arthropods

55

What are examples of Protista?

Protozoans (unicellular organisms)
-Isosporta spp
-Toxoplasma gondii
-cryptosporidium spp
-Sarcocystis spp
-Giardia spp