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Stats on Canadian health.

34% overweight
18% of women and 19% men are obese
2.0% are underweight
9% gain in obesity over past 25 years



a body weight that falls above the range associated with minimum mortality (weighing 10% or more over recommended weight or having a BMI over 25)



Severely overweight with an excess of body fat. Weighing 20% or more over recommended weight or having a BMI over 30


Health implications of obesity + overweight

> 33% rise in type 2 diabetes
21000 premature deaths annually in Canada
obesity is one of the 6 major controllable risk factors for heart disease
weight loss of only 5-10% --> can reduce the risk of certain medical conditions and increase life expectancy


health implications of obesity

2x healthy body weight can reduce life expectancy by 8-10 years

increased risk for:
CVD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, gall bladder disease, joint diseases, skin problems, respiratory problems, impaired immune function & sleep disorders


Can someone be fat & fit?

Yes, lower body fat levels are preferred but it is possible to have higher and in some cases overfat or obese level of fat and still be considered fit


factors that contribute to excess body fat

genetic factors
physiological factors
"yo-yo" dieting
lifestyle factors
eating patterns
lifestyle physical activity
psycho-social factors


Genetics factors?

influence body size and shape, fat distribution and metabolic rate (genetic obesity 25-40%). Tendency to develop obesity may be inherited but environmental factors also have an effect - need a balance between the two



sum of all vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to and used by the body



resting metabolic rate = energy required to maintain vital body functions - the largest component of metabolism

higher in: men, people with more muscle mass, people who exercise

lower in: women, people who are sedentary, people who lost weight

heredity also influences it

exercise (low to high intensity CV activities & muscular endurance activities - metabolically active muscle tissue)


food balance equations

energy in (food calories) = energy out (physical activity = 20-30%, food digestion +/- 10%, resting metabolism 65-70%)



play a role in the accumulation of body fat

leptin is involved in the regulation of appetite and metabolic rate

Female hormonal changes affect amount & location of body fat

carbohydrate craving - low levels of serotonin


Canadians compared to 1991

>400 more calories a day
approx 50 g more of refined and simple carbs
eat out more oftern

more CHO, fat, same protein, larger portions, more sugar, more calories


Eating patterns

people tend to underestimate how much they eat and overestimate how much they expend energy


Lifestyle activity

60% connection between overweight and watching TV
activity level has declines
27% of sedentary men are overweight compared to 20% of active men


Psycho-social factors

eating = means of coping for some
cultural and family influences
women tend to be obese at lower income levels and men obese at higher income levels


What do you do for successful weight management?

Most weight problems are lifestyle problems. analyze and adjust habits - diet and eating habits, daily physical activity, thoughts, attitudes and emotions and coping strategies


Diet and eating habits?

total calories = choose an appropriate energy intake to balance your energy expenditure
- calorie needs varies for each individual based on heredity, age, daily activity habits, fitness level...
eg 1600 (sedentary women and older adults) 2800 (teenage boys and very active individuals)


Low energy density

heavy, but low in calories
vegetables, fruits, high fibre foods


Fat calories?

easily converted to body fat
low fat burners - convert dietary fat to body fat
keep total fat intake moderate and limit intake of saturated and trans fats



emphasize whole grains, vegetables, fruits and other high fiber foods
limit foods in refined carbs, added sugars and easily digestible starch (causes blood sugar & hunger fluctuations, increase CVD risk and diabetes)



meet normal requirements of total daily grams of protein based on body weight or elevated endurance needs
high in protein - usually high in fat


What types of food should you consume?

foods with high nutrient density and low energy density


servings? (CFG)

grains - 5-12
vegetables and fruits - 5-10
milk products - adults 2-4
meat and alternatives - 2-3


Physical activity

increase daily physical activity to at least 30 mins per day - to lose weight > 60 mins a day
to maintain weight loss 60-90+


types of exercise?

CV type endurance exercise burns more calories compared to other forms
calories are burned during the exercise period and the recovery period

strength training builds muscle mass - more muscle tissues can increase metabolic rate



The number of calories burned varies according to the type of exercise, intensity, duration and weight of the body being moved


high intensity exercise

burns more cals/min but it is usually performed for fewer minutes - may not be as sustainable are moderate intensity exercise over time

injury risk increased


Physical Activity - intensity

> 30 mins moderate intensity exercise most days

low-intensity = more energy burned from fat

high intensity = more energy burned from CHO


What about "thoughts about yourself"?

images of the "ideal" self can promote and reinforce low self esteem - criticism
self-talk: a person's internal comments and discussion
realistic "self talk": more balanced, promotes more accurate and positive & motivating beliefs


Coping strategies?

deal with stress by overeating
food can provide comfort/distraction

analyze your eating habits to ensure that you are using food properly


how to overcome a weight problem?

do it yourself
diet books
prescription drugs
psychological helo


When you do it yourself

dont try to lose more than 0.25-1 kg per week (daily negative energy balance of 250-1000 per week max)

cut calorie intake with physical activity to develop an effective lifestyle change
loss of 8-10% body weight in 6 months


rate of weight loss?

initial weight loss is larger - water weight - can cause approx a 5-10 pound weight loss in the first week
after about week 3 - weight loss will slow down


Maintaining weight?

only 10-15% of people who lost weight will maintain it - therefore choose strategies that help long term


Diet books?

only accept books that demonstrate strategies that are supported by research and common sense: balanced diet of normal foods and exercise


Low carbohydrate diet?

not safe long term - hight fat/protein diets may lead to heart disease, cancer...


low fat diet

should focus on nutrient dense foods, especially whole grains-fruits and vegetables


what makes a diet plan effective?

realistic food choices, eating habits, portion control habits, in authentic food situations faced in your own daily life (no shakes, food bars...)


how to be successful in long-term weight loss?

track food intake
engage in > 60 mins physical activity a day


what makes a weight loss program safe?

diet is safe and balanced, promotes slow/steady weight loss, includes plans for weight maintenance, provides info on fees/costs, social support options


Dietary supplements

subject to fewer regulations than over the counter meds
ingredients and purity are variable
not proven safe/effective - most likely representations are falso


Who needs prescription weight loss drugs?

- they affect mood and apetite and can lead to moderate weight loss but have risks and side effects

only recommended for people who are unable to lose weight after a lifestyle change of 6 months (without other medical conditions + BMI>30, with 2+ medical conditions + BMI > 27)



may be recommended for people with a BMI >40 or >35 + other risk factors

weight loss - 40-70% of total body weight in a year - must be part of a lifestyle plan


body image

mental representation a person holds about her or his body
perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes and emotions

media - negative body image for men and women

different cultures have different ideals


Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

related to OCD, can lead to depression, social phobia, suicide


Muscle Dysmorphia

distorted body image - affected people perceive themselves as small and underdeveloped muscles (body builders, men)


Eating disorder

disturbance in eating patterns and behaviours related to an unrealistically negative body image + inaccurate body weight or body fat assessment
affects females more than males


Anorexia nervosa

fear of gaining weight/becoming fat
severe medical complications - muscles wasting, heart damage, death


Bulimia Nervosa

secret episodes of binge eating + purging

overeating and then vomiting/excessive exercise to prevent weight gain

binge-purge cycles have tremendous stress on the body


signs of bulimia

eat very quickly
eat until uncomfortably full
eat when not hungry
eats alone
lack of control over eating

feelings of guilt/shame/depression


How to treat eating disorders?

Deal with the medical aspect, then deal with psychology
stabilize eating & exercise habits
change behaviour patterns and thoughs with therapy/meds


Energy balance

food intake vs energy output

to lost one pound - 3500 calories a week

1/2 pound - 250 a day

2 pounds - 1000 a day

Neutral, positive (consumed>output) & negative (consumed