What does X task measure? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in What does X task measure? Deck (12):
1

Auditory Lexical Decision

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Hear (listen/auditory input) a word or non-word and decided whether it is a word or not a word.

[This task uses:]
*Auditory input (to hear the word)
*Accoustic to phonological converstion
*Phonological input buffer
*Phonological input lexicon (does the word exist?)

[This task bypasses/does not require:]
*ANY visual processing (basic visual, letter ID, object recognition)
*Semantics (don't need to know what the word means)
*Phonological OR orthographic buffers (no generation of outputs, just yes/no)


[Detailed task description]:
Spoken words like “sling” or spoken wordlike nonwords such as “slint” are presented one at a time, and the subject has to decide with each one whether it is a word or not a word. The words may vary in interesting properties such as frequency, concreteness or grammatical class.

2

Irregular word reading

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

read real irregular words that cannot be 'decoded' using letter-to-sound rules --> therefore, retrieve the words from you lexicon. --> Speak the word

[This task uses:]
*Basic visual processing
* Abstract letter ID
* The lexical route: orthographic input lexicon, possibly the semantic system (or bypasses it) (retrieve the word)
*phonological output lexicon and buffer. (retrieve the spoken form of the word and speak it)


[This task bypasses:]
* Auditory input (no listening)
* Object recognition/ID processes
* Letter to sound (non-lexical pathway)
* Written ouput

[Detailed task description]:
Irregular words are presented, one at a time, for reading aloud. Both high and low frequency words may be used and accuracy on the two sets compared.


3

Non-word reading

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Read regularly spelled non-words aloud.

[This task uses:]
* All basic visual processing
* Abstract letter ID
* Letter-to-sound rules (non-lexical route)
* phonological out put buffer (hold in mind and sound it out)

[This task bypasses:]
* Semantics (there is no meaning)
* lexicon (it isn't a real word)
* Visual object ID/recognition (no pictures)
* All auditory input (acoustic features, acoustic - phonology, phonology lexicon etc)

[Detailed task description]:
Pronounceable nonwords are presented, one at a time, for reading aloud. They may vary in interesting properties such as number of letters, number of phonemes, or number of syllables.

4

Written Picture Naming

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Look at picture --> retrieve the name --> write the name down

[This task uses:]
*Basic visual processing
*All object recognition (recognise the picture)
*Semantic system (have to understand meaning)
*Orthographic output lexicon (know how to write it!)
*orthographic output buffer (write it!)

[This task bypasses:]
*All auditory input (Listening) and output (Speech)

[Detailed task description]:
A picture is presented and the subject has to write down its name. Both high and low frequency pictures may be used and accuracy on the two sets compared.

5

Spoken Picture Naming

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Look at picture --> recognise picture (Semantics) --> speak the name.

[This task uses:]
*Basic visual processing
*Visual object recognition
*Semantic system
*Phonological output lexicon
*Phonological output buffer

[This task bypasses:]
*All letter/word-reading processes (e.g., abstract letter identification, orthographic input lexicon, letter-to-sound rules, orthographic output lexion, orthographic output buffer)


[Detailed task description]:
A picture is presented and the subject has to speak its name. Both high and low frequency pictures may be used and accuracy on the two sets compared.

6

Written Word-Picture Matching

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Look at a word --> find the matching picture (multiple choice)

[This task uses:]
*All basic visual processes
*Visual ID (letter, lexicon) of words (identify word, retrieve from lexicon)
*Visual ID of pictures (recognise picture)
*Semantics (to determine the meaning of the picture and words in order to match them)

[This task bypasses:]
*All auditory input (no listening required)
*All auditory and visual output (no spoken or written responses!)


[Detailed task description]:
The subject sees several pictures on a page plus a printed word, and has to point to the picture which matches the word. In addition to the correct pictures, there are semantic distractors e.g. if the printed word is CRAB the pictures will include not just a picture of a crab but a picture of a lobster and a picture of a fish.

7

Spoken Word-Picture Matching

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Listen to a word (spoken word) --> find the matching picture (multiple choice)


[This task uses:]
*Basic auditory feature processing
* Accoustic to phonological conversion, phonological buffer (hold in mind) and phonological input lexicon (recognise and ID the word)
*All basic visual input
* Picture recognision/ID
*Semantics (retrieve word and picture meaning in order to match them)

[This task bypasses:]
*Abstract letter ID, orthographic input lexicon (reading system)
*All spoken and written output/buffers

[Detailed task description]:
The subject sees several pictures on a page, a word is spoken, and has to point to the picture which matches the word. In addition to the correct pictures, there are semantic distractors e.g. if the word “crab” is spoken the pictures will include not just a picture of a crab but a picture of a lobster and a picture of a fish.

8

Visual Lexical Decision

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

View words and non-words and decide whether each is a word or not.

[This task uses:]
*All basic visual processing
* Abstract letter ID and orthographic input lexicon (recognise word, is the word a real word or not?)

[This task bypasses:]
*All auditory input (listening) (acoustic features, sound-phonological converstion, input buffer, phonological lexicon)
*All picture ID/recognition
*All auditory and written ouput/buffers/lexicons


[Detailed task description]:
Printed words like SLING or printed wordlike nonwords such as SLINT are presented one at a time and the subjects has to decide with each one whether it is a word or not a word. The words may vary in interesting properties such as frequency, concreteness or grammatical class.

9

Spelling non-words to dictation

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Hear a word (listen/auditory) --> hold it in mind --> retrieve sound-to-letter correspondence --> write it

[This task uses:]
* Acoustic feature processing
*Acoustic -to-phonological conversion
* phonological input buffer
* phonological output buffer
* Sound-to-letter rules
* Orthographic output buffer


[This task bypasses:]
*All basic visual processing
* Object visual ID/recognition
* Semantic system
* Visual reading processes (E.g., abstract letter ID)
* ALL lexicons (phonological, orthographic) (input and output)

10

Spelling irregular words to dictation

In terms of the omnibus language/visual model
This task uses:
This task bypasses:

Hear a word (listen/auditory) --> retrieve written form from ouput lexicon --> hold it in mind and write it.

[This task uses:]
*Auditory input (listening) - basic feature processing, acoustic to phonological converstion, phonological input buffer, phonological input lexicon.
*May go through or bypass semantics!
* Orthographic output lexicon and buffer (retrieve the written form of spoken word from lexicon and hold it in mind while writing it)


[This task bypasses:]
*All basic visual processing
* All object/picture based processing
*Phonological/auditory ouputs (buffer and lexicon)
*Possible the semantic system
*Abstract letter ID and letter to sound rules (reading)

11

Case-matching

What module does it specifically test?

Is 'A' and 'a' the same letter or different?

This task assesses abstract letter identities.

12

Migratable word reading

What kind of dyslexia presents with difficulty on this task?

Reading of words like 'TRAIL' that if the letters were re-arranged could make another valid word e.g., 'TRIAL'.

This task looks for letter position dyslexia (a peripheral dyslexia).