What happens when the kidneys stop working? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in What happens when the kidneys stop working? Deck (13)
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1

What four things happen when the kidneys stop working?


Loss of EXCRETORY function
Loss of HOMEOSTATIC function
Loss of ENDOCRINE function
Abnormality of glucose homeostasis

2

What are some symptoms of renal failure?


Lethargy
Anorexia
Hypotension

3

What causes the symptoms of anorexia and lethargy?

Accumulation of nitrogenous waste products
Acidosis
Hyponatremia
Volume depletion
Anaemia
Chronic neurological damage (peripheral neuropathy)

4


How can the salt and water levels be imbalanced and what are the consequences?


There could be an inability to excrete salt resulting in hypertension, oedema, pulmonary oedema
There could be an inability to decrease salt excretion (i.e. inability to increase reabsorption of salts) leading to volume depletion and low blood pressure

5

Why does acidosis tend to aggravate hyperkalaemia?

The excess H+ is buffered by taking it into cells in exchange for K+
So extracellular K+ concentration increases

6


What is a serious consequence of hyperkalaemia?

It can cause CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

7


Describe the endocrine functions of the kidney.


The kidneys produce erythropoietin, which stimulates erythropoiesis
The second hydroxylation reaction to produce calcitriol takes place in the kidneys

8

What effect does renal failure have on these endocrine functions?


There is reduced erythropoietin production leading to ANAEMIA
There is reduced calcitriol production leading to hypocalcaemia and HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

9

A major predictor of end stage renal failure is chronic kidney disease, but what is a major outcome for patients with chronic kidney disease?

Cardiovascular Disease

10

State some similarities between acute and chronic kidney disease.

Anorexia
Anaemia
Acidosis
Tendency to hyperkalaemia

11


State two differences between acute and chronic kidney disease.



Acute = renal size unchanged + previously normal creatinine
Chronic = renal size DECREASED + previously ABNORMAL creatinine

12

What is the initial management plan for someone suffering from kidney disease?

IV saline to correct fluid loss
IV sodium bicarbonate to correct acidosis
IV insulin and dextrose to increase uptake of K+ into cells

13

What are the methods of estimating GFR?

Urea (poor indicator)
Creatinine (has a lot of variables)
Creatinine Clearance (difficult in elderly patients to collect an accurate sample)
Inulin Clearance (laborious)
Radionuclide Studies (Cr EDTA)