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LSS 2 - Urinary - Laz > Tubular Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tubular Function Deck (35)
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1

What components of urine do we not have a method of transporting on their own?

Urea and Water - so these move in by passive transport

2

What percentage of the ultrafiltrate is reabsorbed?


99%

3

Define osmolarity.



The measure of osmotic pressure exerted by a solution across a semi-permeable membrane.
This is dependent on the number of particles not the nature.

4

What is the range for normal plasma osmolarity? What makes up the majority of this?

285-295 mosmol/L
Mainly consists of sodium (140 mmol/L)

5


What is the range for normal urine osmolarity?

50-1200 mosmol/L

6


What are the two pathways through the urinary epithelium?

Transcellular and Paracellular (through tight junctions)

7


What is the difference between lipophilic passive transport and hydrophilic passive transport?

Lipophilic passive transport has a linear relationship with solute concentration
Hydrophilic passive transport is saturable because it is dependent on the availability of channel proteins.

8

What are the two routes for water to pass through the renal tubular wall?


Transcellular and Paracellular

9

How can hydrophilic passive transport be upregulated or downregulated?


By changing the number of transporters available e.g. ADH increases the amount of Aquaporin 2 on the apical membrane

10

How does protein reabsorption normally happen?

Receptor mediated endocytosis - the protein binds to a receptor and is endocytosed
The acidity of the endosome allows the complex to dissociate and the receptors are recycled

11


What happens if the concentration of a solute in the urine exceeds the transport maxima?


It is excreted in the urine

12

What are the most important substances that are secreted?

H+
K+

13


Describe the differences in sodium reabsorption throughout the nephron.

65% reabsorbed in PCT
25% reabsorbed in ascending loop of Henle
8% reabsorbed in DCT

14

Where is most bicarbonate reabsorbed?

90% is reabsorbed in the PCT

15


Where, along the nephron, do you find cells that don't have that many mitochondria?


Descending loop of Henle and collecting duct
These areas are mainly involved in the passive transport of water

16

Describe the features of a cell in the proximal convoluted tubule.

Numerous mitochondria
Brush border to increase surface area
Designed for lots of reabsorption

17

What is the most important protein of the cells lining the tubules throughout the nephron?


Na+/K+ ATPase - responsible for the sodium gradient that drives the movement of most substances

18

Which substances move in or out with Na+ in the early proximal tubule?


H+ moves out (Na+/H+ countertransport)
Glucose in (Na+/glucose cotransport)
Amino acids in (Na+/amino acid cotransport)

19

How is proton excretion linked to bicarbonate reabsorption?


Protons are pumped into the tubule via (Na+/H+ exchanger)
Protons react with HCO3- to form H2CO3
H2CO3 converted by carbonic anhydrase to CO2 + H2O
CO2 + H2O moves into the cell and carbonic anhydrase converts it back to H2CO3, which dissociates to form H+ and HCO3-.
HCO3- is passes into the blood, H+ moves out again via the Na+/H+ exchanger

20

Describe the differences between the ascending and descending loop of Henle.


Descending loop of Henle - permeable to water - SQUAMOUS epithelium
Ascending loop of Henle - impermeable to water, Na+, K+ and Cl- reabsorbed here - CUBOIDAL epithelium
Water leaves the top of the loop of Henle being hypoosmolar

21

What channels are found in the cells lining the ascending loop of Henle?


Na+/K+/Cl- triple transporter

22

What type of diuretics blocks this channel?


Loop diuretics

23

Describe the epithelium of the distal convoluted tubule.

Cuboidal epithelium + few microvilli
There are lateral membrane interdigitations with Na+ pumps
Numerous large mitochondria

24


Which transporter is found on the apical membrane in cells in the DCT?


Na+/Cl- cotransporter

25

What other substance is reabsorbed here?

Ca2+ - there is an Na+/Ca2+ exchanger on the basolateral membrane

26


What type of diuretic acts on this transporter and what are the consequences?


Thiazide diuretics - leads to increase in plasma calcium concentration

27

What does the macula densa cells do?


Detect Na+ concentration of the fluid in the tubule - can stimulate release of renin

28

What is the reabsorption of sodium

in the distal part of the DCT and the collecting duct dependent on?
Aldosterone

29

What is needed for reabsorption of water in the collecting duct?


Vasopressin

30

What are the two types of cells in the collecting duct and how do their functions differ?

Principal cells - regulate movement of Na+/K+/water
Intercalated cells - regulate acid-base balance