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OCR B A Level Chemistry > What's in a Medicine? > Flashcards

Flashcards in What's in a Medicine? Deck (32)
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1

What is the general formula of carboxylic acids?

RCOOH
Where R is an alkyl group

2

What is the formula of phenol?

C6H5OH
(hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring)

3

How can phenol be modified?

There can be various groups attached to the benzene ring. As long as there's an -OH directly connected to the benzene, it is still a phenol.

4

What is the general formula of acid anhydrides?

(RCO)2O

5

What is the general formula of esters?

RCOOR'
Where the two R groups can be the same or can be different

6

General formula of aldehydes?

RCHO

7

General formula of ketones?

RCOR'
Where the two R groups can be the same or can be different

8

General formula of ethers?

R-O-R'
Where the two R groups can be the same or can be different

9

Define what a primary alcohol is.

An alcohol where the -OH is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to one other carbon

10

Give the general formula of primary alcohols

RCH2OH

11

Define what a secondary alcohol is.

An alcohol where the -OH is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to two other carbons

12

Give the general formula of secondary alcohols.

RCH(OH)R

13

Define what a tertiary alcohol is.

An alcohol where the -OH is bonded to a carbon that is bonded to three other carbons

14

Give the general formula of tertiary alcohols.

R2C(OH)R

15

What can primary alcohols be oxidised to?

Aldhydes or carboxylic acids

16

State the conditions and reagents needed for primary alcohols to be oxidised to aldehydes

A strong oxidising agent, such as acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, excess alcohol, and distillation

17

State the conditions and reagents needed for primary alcohols to be oxidised to carboxylic acids

Excess oxidising agent and done under reflux

18

What are secondary alcohols oxidised to?

Ketones

19

State the conditions and reagents needed for secondary alcohols to be oxidised to ketones

Oxidising agent, such as acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution and done under reflux

20

Explain why tertiary alcohols can't be oxidised

Oxidation of the -OH won't happen unless there is a hydrogen attached to the carbon bonded to the -OH.

21

What is the colour change when the dichromate(VI) ions are reduced to chromate(III) ions, when used as an oxidising agent?

Orange to green

22

Explain what happens when neutral iron(III) chloride is added to a phenol

You get a purple solution because the phenol forms a complex ion with iron

23

Why can phenols react with hydroxides to form salt and water, but not react with carbonates to form salt, CO2, and water?

Hydroxides are strong enough bases to remove a H+ from the phenol, but carbonates aren't

24

What do you have to react phenols with to get an ester?

Acid anhydrides
Carboxylic acids are also formed

25

Name the two possible things alcohols react with to form esters

Carboxylic acids or acid anhydrides

26

General reaction of alcohols with carboxylic acids

RCOOH + ROH --> RCOOR + H2O

27

General reaction of alcohols with acid anhydrides

(RCO)2O + ROH --> RCOOR + RCOOH

28

What are alcohols dehydrated to?

Alkenes

29

What is another name for a dehydration reaction?

An elimination reaction because a small group of atoms break away from a larger molecule and aren't replaced.

30

What are the two ways of dehydrating alcohols?

- Pass the alcohol vapour over hot aluminium oxide, the catalyst.
- Reflux the alcohol with excess concentrated sulfuric acid at 170°C