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Flashcards in Polymers of Life Deck (18)
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1

How is high resolution mass spec used to differentiate between compounds with the same Mr?

-High-resolution MS gives M+ peak to several decimal places
-Different compounds have different Mr values in the decimal places
-Atoms of the elements have Ar values that are not exact whole numbers

2

What is another name for a peptide link?

Secondary amide

3

Explain what competitive inhibition is and how it occurs.

it binds to the active site
it has the same/similar: shape/ groups
it cannot be reduced/ cannot react further because no C-C bond
it competes (AW) with succinate for the sites

4

Are amines soluble in water?

Small alkyl group = soluble because the enthalpy change to break H bonds is less than enthalpy change on formation hence favourable
Large alkyl group = insoluble because the enthalpy change to break H bonds is greater than enthalpy change on formation hence not favourable

5

What is the suffix of dicarboxylic acids?

-dioic acid

6

Why can amines act as bases?

The lone pair on the nitrogen accepts a proton by forming a dative covalent bond

7

Amines are derivatives of what compound?

Ammonia

8

What are the three types of amine?

Primary- when one of the Hs on NH3 is replaced by an R group
Secondary- when two of the Hs on NH3 are replaced by an R group
Tertiary- when three of the Hs on NH3 are replaced by an R group

9

Amides are derivative of what homologous series?

Carboxylic acids

10

How are amides formed?

Acyl chloride + ammonia --> primary amide + HCl
Acyl chloride + amine --> secondary amide + HCl

11

Can you make esters from acyl chlorides?

Yes: Acyl chloride + alcohol --> ester + HCl

12

What are the two ways of hydrolysing amides?

Using acidic conditions or basic conditions

13

What is the general formula of acid hydrolysis of primary amides?

Primary amide + water + dilute acid --> carboxylic acid + ammonium salt

14

What is the general formula of alkaline hydrolysis of secondary amides?

Secondary amide + dilute alkali --> amine + carboxylate ion

15

What are the two ways of hydrolysing esters?

Using acidic conditions or basic conditions

16

How are esters hydrolysed by acids?

Reflux with a dilute acid, like HCl. The products are an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. This a reversible reaction

17

How are esters hydrolysed under alkaline conditions?

Reflux with a dilute alkaline, like NaOH. The products are an alcohol and a carboxylate ion.

18

Two types of polymers?

Addition polymers and condensation polymers