White Blood Cell Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in White Blood Cell Disorders Deck (27):
1

Benign, exaggerated response to infection. Increased white count.

Leukemoid reaction

2

Cell that increases due to leukemoid reaction in appendicitis

Neutrophil

3

Cell that increases due to leukemoid reaction in Whooping Cough (Bordetella Pertussis)

Lymphocytes

4

Cell that increases due to leukemoid reaction in cutaneous larva migrans

Eosinophils

5

Immature bone marrow cells in peripheral blood. Can be due to fibrosis, metastatic breast cancer, sepsis, growth factor.

Leukoerythroblastic Reaction

6

Condition where a certain white cell increases to more than 7000 due to infection, inflammation with necrosis, and drugs. Results in increased production of the cell and decreased margination.

Neutrophilia

7

Condition where a certain white cell decreases due to less than 1500. Can occur due to chemotherapy, aplastic anemia, immune destruction, septic shock. Results in decreased production of the cell and increased margination (destruction).

Neutropenia

8

Condition where a certain white cell increases to more than 700. Can occur due to type I sensitivity, invasive helminths, hypocortisolism, neoplasms. Results in increased production (induced by interleukins) and increased tissue recruitment. Cell has a bilobed nucleus.

Eosinophilia

9

Condition where a certain white cell increases to more than 200. Usually from Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. Can also be from other myeloproliferative neoplasms and and chronic kidney disease.

Basophilia

10

Proliferation of neoplastic cells, primarily in bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Leukemia

11

Proliferation of neoplastic cells, primarily in lymph nodes and extramedullary lymphoid tissue.

Lymphoma

12

Disease class causing hypercellular bone marrow with effective hematopoesis-cytoses and cell proliferation

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN)

13

Disease class causing hypercellular bone marrow with ineffective hematopoesis-cytopenias, cell death.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

14

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm. BCR-ABL positive. Philadelphia chromosome. Immature myeloid cells. 40-60 years. Hepatosplenomegaly, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, anorexia. Leukocytosis, basophilia.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

15

Rough way to calculate normal bone marrow cellularity

100-age

16

Has chronic phase (3 years), accelerated phase (1 year) and blast phase (acute leukemia). Treat with TKI (-tinibs). (BCR-ABL positive).

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

17

Increase in RBCs, granulocytes, platelets. JAK2 mutation.. Splenomegaly, hyperviscosity, gout, increased histamine. Increased RBC mass, decreased EPO, normal oxygen saturation, increased plasma volume. Most patients die of thrombotic events, can develop MDS or AML.

Polycythemia Vera

18

Rapid development of bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis. Teardrop cells. Leukoerythroblastic reaction. Splenomegaly, clusters of atypical megakaryocytes. Can have JAK2 mutation. Can progress to AML.

Primary Myelofibrosis

19

Myeloproliferative Disease. Proliferation of megakaryocytes, platelet count of over 450,000. Atypical platelet morphology-giant hypogranular platelets. Can have JAK2 mutation. Treat with alkylating agents or similar drugs to lower platelet count.

Essential Thrombocythemia

20

Hypercellular, dysplastic BM. Myeloblasts less than 20%. Elderly. Can progress to AML. Chromosomal abnormalities in 50% of cases (deletion of 5, 5q, 7, 7q). Ring sideroblasts. Treat with hypomethylating agents, allogenic stem cell transplant.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

21

Greater than 20% blasts. Symptoms occur within weeks to months. Typically in adults. Large and uniform blasts, abundant cytoplasm, presence of Auer rods, myelodysplasia.

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia (AML)

22

t(15;17). Needs acute tx, DIC, responds to ATRA, mutliple auer rods, disrupts retinoic acid receptor.

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia- subset of AML

23

AML with favorable prognosis (3)

t(8;21): AML1/ETO
inv(16): CBFbeta/MYH11
t(15;17): PML-RARalpha

24

AML with unfavorable prognosis (1)

11q23 (MLL) rearrangements

25

Proliferative dendritic cells or macrophages. CD1a, langerin positive. Birbeck granules (tennis racket appearance), BRAF mutations.

Langerhans cell Histiocytosis

26

-Primary (genetic)=defects in perforin gene
-Secondary=From EBV, lymphomas
Very high ferritin, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, hemophagocytosis

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/hemophagocytic syndrome

27

Inflammatory or infectious condition that produces many neutrophils with primary=non-specific (purple) granules.

Toxic Change