Why do we sleep and dream? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > Why do we sleep and dream? > Flashcards

Flashcards in Why do we sleep and dream? Deck (40):
1

chronotype

Individual differences in circadian activity.

1

insomnia

Disorder of slow-wave sleep resulting in prolonged inability to sleep.

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Zeitgeber

Environmental event that entrains biological rhythms: a 'time giver.'

2

circadian rhythm

Day-night rhythm.

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narcolepsy

Slow-wave sleep disorder in which a person uncontrollably falls asleep at inappropriate times.

4

reticular activating system (RAS)

Large reticulum (mixture of cell nuclei and nerve fibers) that runs through the center of the brainstem; associated with sleep-wake behavior and behavioral arousal; often called the reticular formation.

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medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF)

Nucleus in the pons participating in REM sleep.

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sleep spindle

Brief burst of EEG activity typically occurring during NREM sleep.

7

dimer

Two proteins combined into one.

8

peribrachial area

Cholinergic nucleus in the dorsal brainstem having a role in REM sleep behaviors; projects to medial pontine reticulum.

9

melatonin

Hormone secreted by the pineal gland during the dark phase of the day-night cycle; influences daily and seasonal biorhythms.

9

metabolic syndrome

Combination of medical disorders, including obesity and insulin abnormalities, that collectively increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

9

NREM (non-REM) sleep

Slow-wave sleep associated with delta rhythms.

10

microsleep

Brief period of sleep lasting a second or so.

12

sleep paralysis

Inability to move during deep sleep owing to the brain's inhibition of motor neurons.

13

biorhythm

Inherent timing mechanism that controls or initiates various biological processes.

13

diurnal animal

Organism that is active chiefly during daylight.

14

light pollution

Exposure to artifical light that changes activity patterns and so distrupts circadian rhythms.

15

reconsolidation

The process of restabilizing a memory trace after the memory is revisited.

15

retinohypothalamic tract

Neural route formed by axons of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus; allows light to entrain the rhythmic activity of the SCN.

16

basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC)

Recurring cycle of temporal packets, about 90-minute periods in humans, during which an animal's level of arousal waxes and wanes.

18

delta (d) rhythm

Slow brain-wave activity pattern associated with deep sleep.

20

jet lag

Fatigue and disorientation resulting from rapid travel through time zones and exposure to a changed light-dark cycle.

21

place cell

Hippocampal neurons maximally responsive to specific locations in the world.

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period

Time required to complete a cycle of activity.

24

entrain

Determine or modify the period of a biorhythm.

25

free-running rhythm

Rhythm of the body's own devising in the absence of all external cues.

26

hypnogogic hallucination

Dreamlike event at the beginning of sleep or while a person is in a state of cataplexy.

28

beta (b) rhythm

Fast brain-wave activity pattern associated with a waking EEG.

29

cataplexy

Form of narcolepsy linked to strong emotional stimulation in which an animal loses all muscle activity or tone, as if in REM sleep, while awake.

30

biological clock

Neural system that times behavior.

31

drug-dependency insomnia

Condition resulting from continuous use of 'sleeping pills'; drug tolerance also results in deprivation of either REM or NREM sleep, leading the user to increase the drug dosage.

32

coma

Prolonged state of deep unconsciousness resembling sleep.

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REM sleep

Fast brain-wave pattern displayed by the neocortical EEG record during sleep.

35

consolidation

The process of stabilizing a memory trace after learning.

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suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

Master biological clock, located in the hypothalmus just above the optic chiasm.

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sleep apnea

Inability to breathe during sleep; person has to wake up to breathe.

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slow-wave sleep

NREM sleep.

39

atonia

No tone; condition of complete muscle inactivity produced by the inhibition of motor neurons.

40

K-complex

Sharp, high-amplitude EEG wave occurring during NREM sleep.