Circular fibrous structure found in several neurodegenerative disorders; forms within the cytoplasm of neurons and is thought to result from abnormal neurofilament metabolism.
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
Problem-focused, action-oriented, structured, treatment for eliminating dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors.
Abbreviation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the American Psychiatric Association's classification system for psychiatric disorders.
Behavioral disorder caused by elevated levels of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood and resulting from a defect in the gene for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase; the major symptom is severe mental retardation.
type II schizophrenia
Disorder characterized by negative symptoms (behavioral deficits) and associated with chronic affliction, poor prognosis, poor response to neuroleptics, cognitive impairments, enlarged ventricles, and cortical atrophy, particularly in the frontal cortex.
Neural shock that follows brain damage in which areas connected to the site of damage show a temporary arrest of function.
Seizure that begins locally (at a focus) and then spreads out to adjacent areas.
grand mal seizure
Seizure characterized by loss of consciousness and stereotyped motor activity.
Unconscious, repetitive, stereo-typed movement characteristic of seizure.
Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression alternating with normal periods and periods of intense excitation, or mania.
Postseizure state of confusion and reduced affect.
Acquired and persistent syndrome of intellectual impairment characterized by memory and other cognitive deficits and impairment in social and occupational functioning.
Movement within neuroscience and psychoanalysis to combine the insights of both to yield a unified understanding of mind and brain.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Syndrome characterized by physiological arousal symptoms brought on by recurring memories and dreams related to a traumatic event for months or years after the event.
Rigid or frozen pose resulting from a psychomotor disturbance.
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
Modification of MRI to identify changes in specific markers of neuronal function; promising for accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injuries.
Brain-function enhancement by pharmacological, physiological, or surgical manipulation.
type I schizophrenia
type I schizophrenia
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Neurosurgery in which electrodes implanted in the brain stimulate a targeted area with a low-voltage electrical current to facilitate behavior.
real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI)
Behavior-modification technique in which individuals learn to change their behavior by controlling their own patterns of brain activation.
Lack of blood to the brain as a result of stroke.
petit mal seizure
Seizure of brief duration, characterized by loss of awareness with no motor activity except for blinking, turning the head, or rolling the eyes.
Drug used to try to block the cascade of poststroke neural events.
Identified with a specific cause, such as infection, trauma, tumor, vascular malformation, toxic chemicals, very high fever, or other neurological disorders.
Inability to stop the tongue or other body parts from moving; motor side effect of neuroleptic drugs.
Psychotherapy based on the perspective that thoughts intervene between events and emotions, and thus the treatment of emotional disorders requires changing maladaptive patterns of thinking.
virtual-reality (VR) exposure therapy
Controlled, virtual-immersion environment that, by allowing individuals to relive traumatic events, gradually desensitizes them to stress.
Treatment that applies learning principles, such as conditioning, to eliminate unwanted behaviors.
Talking therapy derived from Freudian psychoanalysis and other psychological interventions.
Small, involuntary movements or changes in posture; motor restlessness.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
Progressive degenerative disease caused by multiple concussions and other closed-head injuries, characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, plaques, and cerebral atrophy and expanded ventricles due to cell loss.
Tendency to engage in a behavior, such as walking, at faster and faster speeds.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal circuit that controls the production and release of hormones related to stress.
Appears spontaneously and in the absence of other diseases of the central nervous system.
Disordered mental state of extreme excitement.
Illness resulting from the loss of the immune system's ability to discriminate between foreign pathogens in the body and the body itself.