What happens when the brain misbehaves? Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > What happens when the brain misbehaves? > Flashcards

Flashcards in What happens when the brain misbehaves? Deck (36):
1

Lewy body

Circular fibrous structure found in several neurodegenerative disorders; forms within the cytoplasm of neurons and is thought to result from abnormal neurofilament metabolism.

2

cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

Problem-focused, action-oriented, structured, treatment for eliminating dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors.

2

DSM

Abbreviation of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the American Psychiatric Association's classification system for psychiatric disorders.

3

phenylketonuria (PKU)

Behavioral disorder caused by elevated levels of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood and resulting from a defect in the gene for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase; the major symptom is severe mental retardation.

3

type II schizophrenia

Disorder characterized by negative symptoms (behavioral deficits) and associated with chronic affliction, poor prognosis, poor response to neuroleptics, cognitive impairments, enlarged ventricles, and cortical atrophy, particularly in the frontal cortex.

4

diaschisis

Neural shock that follows brain damage in which areas connected to the site of damage show a temporary arrest of function.

4

focal seizure

Seizure that begins locally (at a focus) and then spreads out to adjacent areas.

4

grand mal seizure

Seizure characterized by loss of consciousness and stereotyped motor activity.

5

automatism

Unconscious, repetitive, stereo-typed movement characteristic of seizure.

7

bipolar disorder

Mood disorder characterized by periods of depression alternating with normal periods and periods of intense excitation, or mania.

7

postictal depression

Postseizure state of confusion and reduced affect.

8

dementia

Acquired and persistent syndrome of intellectual impairment characterized by memory and other cognitive deficits and impairment in social and occupational functioning.

8

neuropsychoanalysis

Movement within neuroscience and psychoanalysis to combine the insights of both to yield a unified understanding of mind and brain.

9

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Syndrome characterized by physiological arousal symptoms brought on by recurring memories and dreams related to a traumatic event for months or years after the event.

10

catatonic posture

Rigid or frozen pose resulting from a psychomotor disturbance.

11

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

Modification of MRI to identify changes in specific markers of neuronal function; promising for accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injuries.

13

cognitive enhancement

Brain-function enhancement by pharmacological, physiological, or surgical manipulation.

14

type I schizophrenia

type I schizophrenia

16

deep brain stimulation (DBS)

Neurosurgery in which electrodes implanted in the brain stimulate a targeted area with a low-voltage electrical current to facilitate behavior.

17

real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI)

Behavior-modification technique in which individuals learn to change their behavior by controlling their own patterns of brain activation.

18

ischemia

Lack of blood to the brain as a result of stroke.

19

petit mal seizure

Seizure of brief duration, characterized by loss of awareness with no motor activity except for blinking, turning the head, or rolling the eyes.

20

neuroprotectant

Drug used to try to block the cascade of poststroke neural events.

21

symptomatic seizure

Identified with a specific cause, such as infection, trauma, tumor, vascular malformation, toxic chemicals, very high fever, or other neurological disorders.

22

tardive dyskinesia

Inability to stop the tongue or other body parts from moving; motor side effect of neuroleptic drugs.

24

cognitive therapy

Psychotherapy based on the perspective that thoughts intervene between events and emotions, and thus the treatment of emotional disorders requires changing maladaptive patterns of thinking.

25

virtual-reality (VR) exposure therapy

Controlled, virtual-immersion environment that, by allowing individuals to relive traumatic events, gradually desensitizes them to stress.

27

behavioral therapy

Treatment that applies learning principles, such as conditioning, to eliminate unwanted behaviors.

28

psychotherapy

Talking therapy derived from Freudian psychoanalysis and other psychological interventions.

30

akathesia

Small, involuntary movements or changes in posture; motor restlessness.

31

chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

Progressive degenerative disease caused by multiple concussions and other closed-head injuries, characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, plaques, and cerebral atrophy and expanded ventricles due to cell loss.

32

festination

Tendency to engage in a behavior, such as walking, at faster and faster speeds.

33

HPA axis

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal circuit that controls the production and release of hormones related to stress.

34

idiopathic seizure

Appears spontaneously and in the absence of other diseases of the central nervous system.

35

mania

Disordered mental state of extreme excitement.

36

autoimmune disease

Illness resulting from the loss of the immune system's ability to discriminate between foreign pathogens in the body and the body itself.