Flashcards in Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934? Deck (68)
What was the DAP?
German Worker's Party
When was the DAP established, and by whom?
January 1919, by Anton Drexler
When did Hitler join the DAP?
What was Hitler responsible for in the DAP?
Publicity, propaganda and public speaking
What and when did the DPA rename itself to?
In 1920, to the National Socialist German Worker's Party, the Nazis
What did the Nazis show?
Strong nationalist and anti-semitic features
What was their party badge?
When did Hitler replace Drexler as leader?
When did Hitler find the SA (Storm Troopers)?
What were the SA known for?
Their violence against any opposition
What were some key points form the nazi Party objective published in 1920?
-The union of all Germans in a Greater Germany
-The destruction of the Treaties of Versailles and St Germain
-German citizenship exclusive to those of German blood (excluding the jews)
-No more immigration of non-Germans
-A strong central government in Germany
-Generous provision for old age pensioners
When did the Munich Putsch take place?
What was the purpose of the Munich Putsch?
Hitler wanted to achieve the violent overthrow of the unpopular Weimar Republic and replace it with a Nazi government
Why did Hitler think the Munich Putsch would be successful?
-the ending of passive resistance in the Ruhr gave the impression of giving in to the French
-Hyperinflation was at its height
-Germany had resumed paying reparations, and they despised the treaty
Who supported the Munich Putsch?
General Ludendorff, and it was thought that he would increase the support for the Putsch
What happened on the 8th of November 1923?
Storm Troopers forced their way into a political meeting in a Munich beer hall
They planned to take over tMunich and march into Berlin
What happened to the Kahr (prime minister of Bavaria) during the Munich Putsch?
He was forced at gunpoint to give support to the revolution
What happened on the 9th of November 1923?
The Kahr went back on his promise
Hitler thus marched through the streets of Munich to gain support
How many Nazis were killed during the Munich Putsch, and by whom?
16 Nazis were killed by armed policed opening fire
Why did the Munich Putsch fail?
-The army remained loyal to the Weimar government
-The loyalty of Bavarian politicians had been underestimated
-Hitler miscalculated the mood of the German people. They did not rise to support him
What happened to Ludendorff and Hitler after the Munich Putsch?
Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison
Ludendorff was acquitted
How did Hitler benefit from the trial after the Munich Putsch?
The trial gave him the opportunity to gain publicity for his ideas
How did Hitler use his time in prison?
He used his time to write Mein Kampf
He realised that power could not be achieved by the use of violence
What was Mein Kampf about?
The superiority of the German (Aryan) race, especially in com[parison with Jews and Slavs
The danger of communism
The need for lebensraum
Germany's rise to be the dominant state in Europe.
How did Hitler only serve 9 months in prison?
He had sympathisers within the judiciary
When was the Nazi Party banned?
1923, but this restriction was lifted in 1925
How many seats did the Nazi Party win in the general election of May 1928?
The Nazis only only 12 seats in the Reichstag, polling 2.6% of the votes
Why did the Nazi Party have little success before 1930?
-Many hated the violence of the SA
-People were content with the Weimar government as economic, political and international conditions were improving
-The failure of the Putsch leading to the imprisonment of the Party leader for high treason put people off supporting them
Why did the Nazis fail to gain support of workers?
They remained strong supporters of the Social Democrats
Those with radical views supported the communists
How did the short ban of the Nazis affect the party?
They could not campaign and build up support
Why did people turn to extremist parties in 1930?
The Great Depression caused the economy to crash
As unemployment increased, many Germans felt let down by the Weimar Republic and turned to extremist parties
What were the results o the 1930 elections?
The communists (KPD) gained 77 seats
The Nazis gained 107 seats
Why did the Nazis benefit from the Depression?
With Germany's economy crashing, Hitler and the Nazis promised to get the unemployed back to work and provide food
They gained support from all areas of German society, including powerful industrialists
Why did farmers and industrialists turn to the Nazi party during the Depression?
There was a fear of a communist revolution, and this worried many industrialists and farmers. They thus turned to the Nazis who opposed the communists
Why did the Nazis succeed in elections?
Goebbels introduced new campaigning methods to increase the Nazi share of the vote
What was included in Goebbel's new campaigning methods?
-The Nazis relied on generalised slogans rather than detailed policies
-They talked about uniting behind one leader and returning to traditional values
-If criticised for a specific policy, it would be dropped
-They repeatedly accused the Jews, the communists and the Weimar politicians for the current difficulties
-Posters and pamphlets were everywhere
-Large rallies were held
-The Nazis provided soup kitchens and hostels for the unemployed
-Hitler was a powerful speaker. He travelled by plane to rallies all over Germany
-Film, radio and records brought the Nazi message to everybody
-People supported the Nazis not because they shared Nazi views but because they shared nazi fears and dislikes. This is called negative cohesion.
How did the SA and SS change their reputation change?
-The SA and SS gave an impression of discipline and order
-The SA were prepared to fight the communists, disrupting meetings and rallies
What happened in the Presidential election of 1932?
Hitler opposed the elderly President Hindenburg
In his speeches he blamed the "November Criminals" and the Jews for Germany's problems
He promised to build a better Germany
This was not enough to get him the support he needed and despite going to a second vote, Hitler was unsuccessful
What happened in the elections for the Reichstag in July 1932?
As a result of the 1932 elections the Nazi Party was the largest party in the Reichstag with 230 seats. It did not however, have an overall majority
Why did Hindenburg appoint von Papen as a president ?
As the leader of the largest party, Hitler demanded the Presidency
Hindenburg was suspicious of Hitler and appointed von Papen
What was the nature of the election campaign?
The election campaign had been a violent one with street battles between Nazis and communists. Nearly 100 people were killed
What happened at the elections for the Reichstag in November 1932?
Von Papen lacked support and called another election
The support for the Nazis dropped to 192 seats but still they remained the largest party
Who became Chancellor in early December?
He experienced similar problems to von Papen
Who became Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor towards the end of January 1933?
Hitler became Chancellor
von Papen became Vice-Chancellor
When was the Reichstag Fire?
27 February 1933
Who was the accused of starting the Reichstag Fire?
Dutch communist Marinus van der Lubbe
He was arrested and charged with starting the fire
How did Hitler use the Reichstag Fire to consolidate his power?
He claimed it was proof of a communist plot against the state
He took the opportunity to whip up public fear against the supposed communist threat
What was Hitler able to persuade President Hindenburg to do after the Fire?
To issue an emergency decree
What did the emergency decree allow Hitler to do?
It gave Hitler wide-randing powers, including the power to deal with the "state of emergency" that had arisen following the Reichstag Fire
What did the emergency decree do?
It curbed freedom of speech and the right of assembly
It gave the police an excuse to arrest communists
In Prussia over 4,000 were arrested in the days immediately after the fire
How was Hitler able to win the general election of March 1933?
Hitler aimed for full control of Germany
He banned the Communist Party and shut down their newspapers
The SA were used to intimidate political opponents
How many seats did the Nazis win in the general election of March 1933?
When was the Enabling Act passed?
23 March 1933
How was Hitler able to gain the votes for the Enabling Act?
He expelled the 81 communist members from the Reichstag and order the SA to continue their intimidation of the opposition
Who were the only ones to oppose the Enabling Act?
The Social Democrats
How many votes did Hitler need to pass the Enabling Act?
Two-thirds of the votes of the Reichstag members
How many votes did the Act pass with?
441 votes to 94
What were the consequences of the Enabling Act?
-Hitler was now dictator of all Germany
-He could now pass laws for four years without consulting the Reichstag
-He was able to ban all other political parties. Germany was now a one-party state
-In May 1933 the trade unions were abolished, their leaders arrested and funds confiscated. Strike action was made illegal. All worders had to belong to the German Labour Front
-The civil service was purged of all Jews
-The democratic Weimar Republic had been destroyed
When was the Night of the Long Knives?
30 June 1934
Why did Hitler carry out the Night of the Long Knives? (Army)
-If Hitler did not send a clear signal to the army that they were to remain a special, highly-trained, professional body, central to this plans, then there was the danger that they would launch a coup against him
Why did Hitler carry out the Night of the Long Knives? (Senior army generals)
Senior army generals had heard that Röhm was in favour of merging the army with the SA under his leadership. These generals were upset by such rumours and unsure as to how Hitler regarded the idea
Why did Hitler carry out the Night of the Long Knives?
Hitler was beginning to see Röhm as a threat because he was expressing disappointment with Nazi achievements and arguing in favour of a "second revolution". This would have involved introducing radical policies such as nationalisation, upsetting business leaders
Why did Hitler carry out the Night of the Long Knives? (Hitler)
Hitler needed to reassure the army and show the SA leadership who was in control
What happened in the Night of the Long Knives?
Röhm and other SA leaders were arrested and shot.
During the next two weeks several hundred senior SA men, other rivals and potential enemies, including von Schleicher, were also murdered by the SS
What were the effects of the Night of the Long Knives on the SA?
-The army could no longer be in any doubt that Hitler favoured them in preference to the SA
-The SA were brought firmly under the control of Hitler's leadership
When did President Hindenburg die?
2nd of August 1934
What happened when President Hindenburg died?
Hitler proclaimed himself Chancellor and Reich Führer
He was Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Army