Flashcards in Wk 11 Deck (15)
What is the association between obesity and microbiota (or lack thereof)
-H. pylori affects gastric hormones that have a role in energy homeostasis, such as leptin and ghreline; a link between its disappearance and the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes and obesity has also been postulated
-profound changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota in obese individuals which appear to enable the "obese microbiota" to extract more energy from the diet....the gut microbiota interacts with host epithelial cells to indirectly control energy expenditure and storage
-obese individuals found to have elevated levels of Enterobacter
Know H. Pylori – beneficial vs. adverse effects on digestive health
beneficial: H. pylori assoc. with reduced risk of adenocarcinoma in the lower esophagus, modulates gastric hormones
adverse effects: gastric adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, ulcers
Homeopathic approaches (and remedies) for dysbiosis
General approach for candida: Candida nosode, Nystatin nosode, Syphilinum
-Use one dose of 30C weekly
What prerequisites are needed to define a probiotic?
prebiotics are cofactors for probiotics
What is a prebiotic? How does it work?
a non-digestible food that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon
ex: Inulin, FOS (support the growth of beneficial bacteria)
Synbiotic? The advantages of its use?
mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics that beneficially affect the host
Improved survival of live bacteria in food products, prolonged shelf life
Increased number of ingested bacteria reaching the colon in a viable form
Stimulation in the colon of the growth and implantation of both exogenous and endogenous bacteria
Activation of metabolism of beneficial bacteria, antagonistic toward pathogenic bacteria
Production of antimicrobial substances (bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids etc)
Anti-inflammatory, Anti-mutagenic, Anti-carcinogenic, and production of bioactive compounds (enzymes, vaccines, peptides etc)
Know the triggering events of dysbiosis
overgrowth of normal species (usually present in small amounts) when population of other normal species are decreased
normal species spreads to areas not normally found (e.g. colon to SI -> SIBO)
Pathogen establishes itself in gut, usually resulting in some clinical disease state
Uncommon overgrowth of normal flora leading to secondary displacement
What are the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora?
-Both human and animal studies have shown that even a one-time antibiotic treatment can lead to decreases in bacteria usually considered beneficial, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, as well as increases in potential pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and the yeast Candida albicans.
-In the short term, such shifts in microbiota can cause yeast infections and GI symptoms including bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
-Recent work suggests the consequences may be much longer-lasting and more serious (from 4 weeks to 2 years)
How does a high carbohydrate diet influence dysbiosis?
slows bowel transit time - increases bacterial fermentation, increases exposure to potentially toxic bowel contents, promotes fungal overgrowth
high carb diet (esp gluten and casein)- incr. disaccharide load to colon (can feed microbiota, esp yeast), results in abnormal bacterial overgrowth and fermentation
What are the non-GI symptoms and conditions associated with dysbiosis/intestinal permeability?
behavioral problems in children
DMI & II
Thymus vulgaris (essential oil)
Usnea spp. (Collins)
What diets are most appropriate for dysbiosis? why?
Anti-candida (initially avoiding all carbs)
Elimination (avoiding allergens/food sensitivities is an essential part of treatment)
what are the most important quality control considerations in selection a probiotic?
-a minimum of 2.5 billion organisms for mild conditions, upwards of 20-30 billion often needed
-choose your probiotics carefully- ask for assays from the companies
-refrigerated strains seem to have improved therapeutic efficacy
-take with meals/after meals