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Flashcards in Wk3 Body Defences Deck (18):
1

What is an antigen?

Foreign substances in the body (invaders). Including: viruses, bacteria, fungi, toxins and parasites.

2

Describe Innate Immunity (Nonspecific Defence)

Prevents ALL types of entry of antigens. If already entered to eliminate or prevent spread.

3

Describe Active Immunity (Specific Defence)

Focused attack against specific pathogen causing infection and creating protection against that pathogen.

4

Antigen and Pathogen impacts the respiratory system through: ________ ?

Inhalation

5

Antigen and Pathogen impacts the GIT system through: ________ ?

Ingestion

6

Antigen and Pathogen impacts the urinary and reproductive tracts through: ________ ?

Sexual Contact

7

Antigen and Pathogen impacts the Integumentary system through: ________ ?

Trauma / Cuts and wounds.

8

Physical defence barriers, include:

Skin, Hair, Mucous membrane, Cilia and Mucus

9

Chemical defence barriers, include:

Sweat, Sebum, Tears (lysozyme), saliva, stomach acid and urine

10

Biological cell defence barriers, include:

Neutrophils, Macrophages, NK cells (natural killers cells) and Mast cells.

11

Describe Neutrophils.

Deformable cells that move out from blood vessels. The phagocytose release their contents to kill antigens and eventually form pus

12

What is pus?

Creamy white semisolid materials. Consisting of: neutrophils, macrophages, damaged tissue and dead pathogens.

13

What is macrophages?

Blood monocytes that ingest bacteria, viruses, dead cells and foreign matter.

14

What is a NK (Natural Killer) cell?

First line of defence against tumour and viral infection. Bind to cells using antibody "bridge" then kill it by secreting a chemical called 'perforin'.

15

What is the complement system?

A group of proteins that circulate in the blood. Which undergo a process resulting in the formation of chemical mediators.

16

Inflammation localises the ________/damage.

Inflammation localises the infection and damage

17

Signs of inflammation can include:

Redness, Heat, Swelling, Pain and loss of function.

18

Redness and heat occurs when:

Due to increased blood flow and also to vasodilation histamine.