World History Semester Exam Flashcards Preview

2013-2014 > World History Semester Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in World History Semester Exam Deck (62):
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Prehistory

The time before written records

1

Civilization

A form of culture characterized by advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology

2

Empire

A political unit in which a number of peoples or countries a controlled by a single ruler

3

Civil service

The administrative department of a government- especially those in which employees are hired on the basis of their scores on examinations

4

Mandate of Heaven

Created by the Zhou rulers of China- the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority

5

Hammurabi Code

Single, uniform code of law created by Hammurabi of Babylon to unify his empire

6

Dynasty

A series of rulers from a single family

7

Confucianism

The teachings of Confucius, who taught about diligence, reverence, truthfulness, generosity, and respect for elders; centered around relationships

8

Daoism

A philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi who taught that people should by guided by a universal force called the Dao

9

Legalism

A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is key to social order

10

Polis

A Greek city-state; the fundamental political unity of Ancient Greece after about 750 B.C.

Example: Athens

11

Democracy

Citizen- controlled government, either directly or through representatives

Example: Pericles increased number of public officials given salaries- more citizens engaged in self- government

12

Monarchy

A government in which power is held in the hands of a single person

Example: rulers in Mycenae

13

Aristocracy

A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility

Example: Athens prior to 594 B.C.

14

Oligarchy

A government in which power is in the hands of a few people, especially when rule is based on wealth

Example: Sparta

15

Cultural diffusion

The spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another

Example: contact between Mycenaeans and Minoans led to Mycenaeans adopting basis of Minoan culture

16

Republic

A form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders

Example: the Roman government

17

Senate

The supreme governing body made up originally of aristocrats

Example: patricians

18

Patrician

The member of the wealthy, privileged, upper class

19

Plebeian

One of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the Roman population

Example: members of the tribal assembly

20

Twelve tables

Roman laws carved onto twelve tablets or tables; established the idea that all citizens have right to protection under the law

21

Dictator

A political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a "limited" amount of time

Example: Julius Caesar

22

Pax Romana

27 B.C. - 180 A.D. ; first ruler was Augustus; time of peace and prosperity where Rome was at the height of its power

Example: Rome spread 3 million square miles

23

Justinian Code

The body of Roman civil law collected and organized by the order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian around A.D. 534; decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of people's lives and lasted for 900 years

24

Eastern Orthodoxy

The Christian Church of the Eastern Empire

25

Czar

A Russian emperor; title first came to be in rule of Ivan III, when Russia was liberated from Mongols

26

Hagia Sophia

The cathedral of holy wisdom in Constantinople, built by the order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian; hailed as one of the most beautiful churches in the world

27

Five Pillars

The five duties Muslims are to carry out:
1. Confession of faith
2. Prayer
3. Almsgiving
4. Fasting
5. Pilgrimage (hajj)

28

Sunni

The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad

29

Shi'a

The branch of Islam that believes Ali and his descendants to be the rightful successors of Muhammad

30

Sufi

A Muslim mystic who seeks to achieve direct contact with god through mystical means

31

House of Wisdom

A center of learning established in Baghdad in the 800s

32

Secular

Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual manners

Example: papacy under Pope Gregory I

33

Feudalism

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who lived on that land; most powerful institution in medieval Europe

34

Manorialism

The vesting of legal and economic power into one lord, supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the contributions of a legally subject part of the peasants who live on his manor

35

Holy Roman Empire

An empire established in Europe in the tenth century A.D., originally consisting of lands is what is now Germany and Italy; the political state of the Catholic Church

36

Crusades

The expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims

Effects: expanded trade between Europe and southwest Asia, lessened the power of popes and feudal nobility, increased power of kings, thousands of lives lost, disrupted trade in other parts of world, hatred between Christians and Muslims

37

Reconquista

The effort of Christian rulers to drive Muslim Moors our of Spain (1100s- 1492)

Effect: led to Inquisition

38

Inquisition

A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy (especially those active in Spain)

39

Commercial Revolution

The expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th century

Effect: birth of local marketplaces with goods from all over Europe; manor is no longer self- sufficient; expansion of trade routes across Europe, Arabia, Southwestern Asia

40

Vernacular

The everyday language of a people in a country or region

41

Estates General

An assembly of representatives from all three estates (social classes) in France; beginning of democratic tradition in France that would set up central gov.

42

Great Schism

1376- a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and Rome

43

Black Plague

A deadly disease which spread across Europe and Asia, killing millions of people (bubonic plague)

44

Grand Canal

A waterway which connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang which provided a vital trade route between the northern cities and southern rice- producing cities of the China Delta

45

Moveable type

Blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing

46

Samurai

One of the professional warriors who served Japan's feudal lords

47

Shogun

A supreme military commander who ruled in the name of the emperor

48

Bushido

The strict code of behavior followed by samurai warriors (chivalry)

49

Renaissance

A period of "rebirth" in European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which the renewed interest in classical culture led to far- reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world

50

Humanism

An intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focus on human potential and achievements

51

Reformation

A 16th century movement for religious reform; lead to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority

52

Indulgence

A pardon releasing a person from punishments due for sin

53

Predestination

The doctrine that God has decided all things before hand, including which people would be eternally saved; main belief of Calvinism

54

Catholic Counter Reformation

A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation

55

Columbus

Italian sea captain whose goal was to find a route to Asia by sailing west across Atlantic Ocean....
Instead he reached an island in the Caribbean and opened door for European exploration of Americas

56

Columbian Exchange

The global transfer of plants, animals,and diseases that occurred during European colonization of the Americas

57

Conquistador

The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century

58

Colony

A land controlled by another nation

59

Favorable balance of trade

An economic situation in which a country sells more economic goods abroad than it sells than it buys from abroad

60

Capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership and the investment of money in business

61

Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who took over Aztec Empire in Mexico