Flashcards in Writing Material Part 2 Deck (33):
Figures of Rhetoric
Schemes--that is, variations from typical word or sentence formation--and tropes, which are variations from typical patterns of thought. Figures of speech.
Ex: "When I first saw her, my soul began to quiver."
A part of the plot that jumps ahead in time and returns to the present.
Ex: Oedipus is told he will sleep with his mother and kill his father by a prophet.
A systematic strategy or method for solving problems. It is a strategy involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and especially trial-and-error and is relating to exploratory problem-solving techniques that utilize self-educating techniques to improve performance.
Ex: Lawrence Lessig has argued that patents in different industries should be given different amounts of time, using this strategy.
In ancient Roman oratory, the method that speakers used to memorize their speeches, connecting the introduction to the porch of a house, the narration and partition to the front foyer, the confirmation and refutation to rooms connected to the foyer, and the conclusion to the back door.
Ex: Julius Caesar most likely used this method to memorize his speeches.
Unusual or inverted word order.
Ex: "Size matters not. Judge me by my size, do you?" (Yoda).
Language that evokes particular sensations or emotionally rich experiences in a reader.
Ex 1: Edgar Allan Poe uses imagery in The Fall of the House of the Usher.
Ex 2: "…ran for a huge black knotted trees whose massed leaves made a fabric against the rain…" (Fitzgerald 93).
A metaphor embedded in a sentence rather than expressed directly as a sentence.
Ex 1: "John swelled and rustled his plumage." (John was a peacock.)
Ex 2: "Something was making him nibble at the edge of stale ideas as if his sturdy physical egotism no longer nourished his peremptory heart" (Fitzgerald 25).
Reasoning that begins by citing a number of specific instances or examples and then shows how collectively they constitute a general principle.
Ex: This ice is cold. Thus, all ice is cold.
The goal a writer or speaker hopes to achieve with the text.
Ex: One of John Steinbeck's intentions in The Grapes of Wrath was to end humans' inhumanity to fellow humans.
The specialized vocabulary of a particular group.
Ex: Bilateral periorbital hematoma (a black eye).
This is an example of jargon doctors use.
People's topics; ordinary patterns of reasoning; also called basic topics.
Ex: Topics include justice, peace, rights, and movie theaters.
Vocabulary characterized by the choice of elaborate, often complicated words from Latin roots.
Ex: Words like "deviate," "aqueduct," and "insulate".
A narrative in which the reader or viewer has access to the unspoken thoughts of one character or partial thinking of more than one character.
Ex: "Murgatroyd met Madeline on New Year's Eve in 2002. He attended a party and she opened the door. Her hair! Only a goddess could have hair so fine."
Ironical understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of its contrary
Ex 1: You won't be sorry, meaning you'll be glad.
Ex 2: "This is no ordinary city" rather than "this is an impressive city".
Ex 3: "I lived at West Egg, the--well, the less fashionable of the two, though this is a most superficial tag…" (Fitzgerald 9).
Ex: Not unattractive
The art of reasoning.
Ex: All humans are mortal. Socrates is human. Thus, Socrates is mortal.
The appeal of a text based on the logical structure of its argument or central ideas.
Ex: "If there really were such strong evidence of racial bias in the justice system it would be newsworthy. . ." (Taylor 6).
The feeling that a text is intended to produce in the audience.
Ex: In John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, the mood is mostly dark and gloomy.
An anecdote or a story offered in support of a generalization, claim, or point. Also, a function in texts accomplished when the speaker or writer tells a story.
Ex: "A good man, gray on the edges, an assistant manager in a brown starched and ironed uniform, is washing the glass windows of the store...Good night, m'ijo! he tells a young boy coming out after playing the video game..." (Dagoberto Gilb)
A narrative in which the reader or viewer has access to the unspoken thoughts of all the characters.
Ex: Our Town by Thornton Wilder.
A usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude or a religious principle.
Ex: Ignacy Krasicki's "The Blind Man and the Lame."
A statement that seems untrue on the surface but is true nevertheless.
Ex: "Not having a fashion is a fashion."
To call with a slight change of name; a play on words. A pun of sorts.
Ex: "Independence is what a boy wants from his father when he wants to be let a loan."
A loan replaces alone.
In ancient Roman oratory, the part of a speech where the speaker would divide the main topic into parts.
Usually a part of the narratio.
Names the issues in dispute.
Lists arguments to be used in order of their appearance in the paper.
Ex: Julius Caesar used partitions to better communicate his argument.
The appeal of a text to the emotions or interests of the audience.
Ex: ". . . Helped feed a wave of national breast-beating over the unfairness of the juvenile justice system" (Taylor 1).
A system calling for writers to read or listen to one another's work and suggest ways to improve it.
Ex: In AP US History, we peer reviewed each other's take-home DBQs.
Kenneth Burke's system for analyzing motives and actions in communication. The five points of the pentad are act, agent, agency, scene, and purpose.
The substitution of an attributive word or phrase for a proper name, or the use of a proper name to suggest a personality characteristic.
Ex 1: "He was no Romeo; but then again, she was no Juliet."
Ex 2: "…I stared at it, like Kant at his church steeple…" (Fitzgerald 93).
Ex 3: She wasn't a Gabby, unfortunately for her.
The character that a writer or speaker conveys to the audience; the plural is personae. It is the aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others.
Ex 1: "her public persona"
Ex 2: In The Great Gatsby, Nick Carraway is a persona.
The plural of persona.
Ex: Nick Carraway and Jay Gatsby.
The giving of human characteristics to inanimate objects.
Ex: The fall season has been personified as "sitting on a granary floor" (Keats).
The changing of people's minds or actions by language.
Ex: Protect the environment, for it is what the lives of your children and the future of the world will depend on.
Begging of the question; disagreeing with premises or reasoning.
Ex: "The bible says god exists and the bible must be right since it is the revealed word of god, so god exists."