Flashcards in Written Evaluation 1 Deck (41):
In what langauge domain does semantics exist?
An individual’s learning and storage of the meaning of words. How to organize words into sentences to specify
Semantics vs Lexicon
The volume of words one understands (receptive lexicon) and the uses (expressive lexicon)
Like your internal word bank
Semantics is how you use those words
Receptive Lexicon (usually larger)
The volume of words one understands
The volume of words that one uses
In what language domain does syntax exist?
internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentences.
How to organize words into sentences-- developed through gradual internalization of the grammatical system of one’s language
What are the 3 major syntactical achievements (along with parameters is syntactic deveopment described) from infancy to adulthood?
3 major sytactic achievements:
- Increase in utterance length
- Increase in sentence variety
- Development of a complex syntax
what is a declarative
- Declaratives sentences make a statement
- Siimple declarative organizational schemes
Subject + verb phrase
Subject + verb phrase + object
Subject + verb phrase + complement
Subject + verb phrase + adverb phrase
Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object
Subject + verb + direct object + indirect object
- Fairly common for 3 year olds to have mastered the majority of these patterns and to use
How is MLU calcualated
It is calculated by the total number of morphemes divided by number of utterances
what is counted in MLU
What is counted is words (utterances) and morphemes
Identify some major milesones in MLU development
- Transitioning out of the two word stage
- Children gradually add more words to their utterances
- They add more content and functional words
Mommy cookie > mommy eat cookies
More ball> more big ball
-- Sentence modalities
- Longer utterances produce sentences of various types or modalities
- Increasing skill at producing different sentence types that vary in pragmatic intent and syntactic organization
- Differences among sentence types reside in how words are grammatcally organized at surface level
- Governs the sounds we use when we make syllables and words
- Phonemes: meaningul sounds (in any given language)
- 39 phonemes in general american english
- 15 vowels and 24 consonants
- Developing sensitivity to legal rules that specify the order of sounds and syllables in words
- Learn the ‘chances’ that two adjacent sounds will signal in the beginning or end of a word
A broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language - parts such as words syllables and onsets and rhymes.
- Children show preference for stress pattern, or “rhythm” of their language from infancy
- The awareness of the rhythm helps them parse words from speech stream
- English is strong-weak
What sounds can a 6 month old hear, and how is that different from a 12 month old? (think about exposure to sounds in the child’s specific language environment
- 6 month year old children have an easier time discriminating sounds and a 12 month old is having a harder time discriminating sounds
- There is a reorganization of the brain in the first year of life so any baby can learn any language and that’s refined more after 12 months
- Exposure to certain environments creates neural pathways that help us learn one langauge as we lose the ability to percieve others
Describe (very basically) place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing.
Dimension specifies where in the vocal tract the constriction is
The parameter specifies whether the vocal folds are vibrating
How narrow the constriction is, whether air is flowing through the nose, and whether the tongue is dropped down on one side
Know some contrasts: e.g., how do /b/ & /d/ differ and how are they the same? How do /s/ & /t/ differ and how are they the same? How do /p/ & /b/ differ/ are same?
B and d are both stops however D is a stop when you block air blo to the alveolar ridge and B is a bilabial stop. B is a place and D is the manner.
T is another alveolar stop in which airflow stops and S a fricative in which there is a turbulent air stream that cuases the hissing s sound. They are both manners of articulation.
P and b are both bilbial stops.
In what language domain does morphology exist?
: governs internal organization of words; the smallest unit of language that cange meaining. Individual root words are morphemes (e.g. sun cat moon light). There are also grammatical morphemes (that are not stand alone words) and derivational morphemes (that may or may not be words.
4 types of morphemes
Can stand alone; these are words; sometimes words that serve primarily grammatical purposes
must be attached to other morphemes
add precision to language cat > cats (not stand alone words)
expand vocabulary exponentially sunlight > moonlight ( may or may not be words)
when do we first show grammatcial morpheme use in our expressive languag
2 years old
what are the first two grammatical morphemes we use
Explain how a child demonstrates morpheme mastery in his/her expressive language
- Children include a grammatical morpheme in 75% or more of obligatory contexts
- Obligatory contexts “ instances in which a mature grammar specifies use of a grammatical marker
What language domain is pragmatics
what is the definition of pragmatics
Govern how language is used for social purposes
Rules that govern:
Using language for different discourse functions or intentions (communication intentions)
Organizing language for discourse (conversation)
Knowing what to say and how to say it (social conventions)
what kinds of langauge skills does pragmatics encompass
sensitivity to extralinguistic cues
theory of mind
infants and caregivers focus attention on a mutal object; the infant must
stylistic variations in language that occur in different situational contexts
-- Changes in register can include changes in syntax, morphology, semantics, phonology
exchanges with others
buildign blocks of cognition; internalized representations fo the organizational structures of various events
= intiation and establishment of a topic, a series of contingent turns that maintain the topic, and resolution and closure
sensitivity to extralincguistic cues
posture, gesture, facial expression, eye contact, proximity, pitch, loudness, pausing
theory of mind
knowing your mind is independent. Knowing others have their own minds