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Flashcards in Written Evaluation 1 Deck (41):
1

In what langauge domain does semantics exist?

Context

2

Semantics defintion

An individual’s learning and storage of the meaning of words. How to organize words into sentences to specify

3

Semantics vs Lexicon

Lexicon

The volume of words one understands (receptive lexicon) and the uses (expressive lexicon)
Like your internal word bank

Semantics is how you use those words

4

Receptive vocabulary

Receptive Lexicon (usually larger)
The volume of words one understands

5

Expressive Vocabulary

Expressive Lexicon
The volume of words that one uses

6

In what language domain does syntax exist?

Form

7

Syntax defintion

internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentences.
How to organize words into sentences-- developed through gradual internalization of the grammatical system of one’s language

8

What are the 3 major syntactical achievements (along with parameters is syntactic deveopment described) from infancy to adulthood?

3 major sytactic achievements:
- Increase in utterance length
- Increase in sentence variety
- Development of a complex syntax

9

what is a declarative

- Declaratives sentences make a statement
- Siimple declarative organizational schemes
Subject + verb phrase
Subject + verb phrase + object
Subject + verb phrase + complement
Subject + verb phrase + adverb phrase
Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object
Subject + verb + direct object + indirect object
- Fairly common for 3 year olds to have mastered the majority of these patterns and to use

10

How is MLU calcualated

It is calculated by the total number of morphemes divided by number of utterances

11

what is counted in MLU

What is counted is words (utterances) and morphemes

12

Identify some major milesones in MLU development

- Transitioning out of the two word stage
- Children gradually add more words to their utterances
- They add more content and functional words
Mommy cookie > mommy eat cookies
More ball> more big ball
-- Sentence modalities
- Longer utterances produce sentences of various types or modalities
- Increasing skill at producing different sentence types that vary in pragmatic intent and syntactic organization
- Differences among sentence types reside in how words are grammatcally organized at surface level

13

Phonology Domain

Form

14

Phonology Definition

- Governs the sounds we use when we make syllables and words
- Phonemes: meaningul sounds (in any given language)
- 39 phonemes in general american english
- 15 vowels and 24 consonants

15

Phonotactic

- Developing sensitivity to legal rules that specify the order of sounds and syllables in words
- Learn the ‘chances’ that two adjacent sounds will signal in the beginning or end of a word

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Phonological Awareness

A broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language - parts such as words syllables and onsets and rhymes.

17

Prosody

- Children show preference for stress pattern, or “rhythm” of their language from infancy
- The awareness of the rhythm helps them parse words from speech stream
- English is strong-weak

18

What sounds can a 6 month old hear, and how is that different from a 12 month old? (think about exposure to sounds in the child’s specific language environment

- 6 month year old children have an easier time discriminating sounds and a 12 month old is having a harder time discriminating sounds
- There is a reorganization of the brain in the first year of life so any baby can learn any language and that’s refined more after 12 months
- Exposure to certain environments creates neural pathways that help us learn one langauge as we lose the ability to percieve others

19

Describe (very basically) place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing.

Place
Dimension specifies where in the vocal tract the constriction is
Voicing
The parameter specifies whether the vocal folds are vibrating
Manner
How narrow the constriction is, whether air is flowing through the nose, and whether the tongue is dropped down on one side

20

Know some contrasts: e.g., how do /b/ & /d/ differ and how are they the same? How do /s/ & /t/ differ and how are they the same? How do /p/ & /b/ differ/ are same?

Ex:
B and d are both stops however D is a stop when you block air blo to the alveolar ridge and B is a bilabial stop. B is a place and D is the manner.
T is another alveolar stop in which airflow stops and S a fricative in which there is a turbulent air stream that cuases the hissing s sound. They are both manners of articulation.
P and b are both bilbial stops.

21

In what language domain does morphology exist?

form

22

Morphology definition

: governs internal organization of words; the smallest unit of language that cange meaining. Individual root words are morphemes (e.g. sun cat moon light). There are also grammatical morphemes (that are not stand alone words) and derivational morphemes (that may or may not be words.

23

4 types of morphemes

free morphemes
bound morphemes
grammatical
derivational

24

free morphemes

Can stand alone; these are words; sometimes words that serve primarily grammatical purposes

25

bound morphemes

two types
must be attached to other morphemes

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grammatical

add precision to language cat > cats (not stand alone words)

27

derivational

expand vocabulary exponentially sunlight > moonlight ( may or may not be words)

28

when do we first show grammatcial morpheme use in our expressive languag

2 years old

29

what are the first two grammatical morphemes we use

ing
's' plural

30

Explain how a child demonstrates morpheme mastery in his/her expressive language

- Children include a grammatical morpheme in 75% or more of obligatory contexts
- Obligatory contexts “ instances in which a mature grammar specifies use of a grammatical marker

31

What language domain is pragmatics

use

32

what is the definition of pragmatics

Govern how language is used for social purposes
Rules that govern:
Using language for different discourse functions or intentions (communication intentions)
Organizing language for discourse (conversation)
Knowing what to say and how to say it (social conventions)

33

what kinds of langauge skills does pragmatics encompass

Joint attentiion
register
conversations
schemas
conversational schema
sensitivity to extralinguistic cues
theory of mind

34

Joing attention

infants and caregivers focus attention on a mutal object; the infant must

35

Register

stylistic variations in language that occur in different situational contexts
-- Changes in register can include changes in syntax, morphology, semantics, phonology

36

converstaions

exchanges with others

37

schemas

buildign blocks of cognition; internalized representations fo the organizational structures of various events

38

converstional schema

= intiation and establishment of a topic, a series of contingent turns that maintain the topic, and resolution and closure

39

sensitivity to extralincguistic cues

posture, gesture, facial expression, eye contact, proximity, pitch, loudness, pausing

40

theory of mind

knowing your mind is independent. Knowing others have their own minds

41

Describes the purposes of communicative intent

Instrumental = to ask for something
Regulatory = to give directions and direct others
Interactional = to interact in a social way
Personal = to express state of mind feelings
Heuristic = to find out information , to inquire
Imaginative = to tell stories and role play
Informative = to provide organized description of an event or object