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Flashcards in Written Evaluation 2 Deck (35):

Categorical Perception

adult like speech perception

examples: voice onset time


what changes in infancy in terms of perception of native and non-native phoneme contrasts?

Infants who are not yet “learning words” devote greater attention to the phonetic details of speech. Older children concentrate their efforts on word learning at the expense of fine phonetic detail (stager and werker)

- they have engaged in perceptual narrowing


What (two basic types of) information do infants use to categorize new things in their world?

- perceptual
- categorical


Perceptual features

- "what it looks like"
- based on similar appearing features,, to include color, shape , texture size, etc
- Use to recognize and identify object around them
- Perceptual categorization describes knowing what something looks like


Categorical features

- "what it is"
- conceptual categorization describes knowing what something is
- based on what objects do, rather than what they look like


Categorical hierarchy

- Infant's first categories are basic level categories and first words are basic level words
- Superordinate level
- Basic level
- Subordinate level


Categorical hierarchy: Superordinate level

- uppermost level in a category hierarchy
- most general concept in a particular category
- among the later words children acquire


Categorical hierarchy: Basic Level

- center of category of hierarchy
- general concepts in a category


Categorical hierarchy: Subordinate level

- lowermost level in a category hierarchy
- specific concepts in a category


The different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1

- Reflexive (0-2 months)
- Control of phonation (1-4)
- Expansion (3-8 months)
- Canonical syllables (5-10 months)
- Advanced forms (9-18 months)


The different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1: Reflexive (0-2)

- The very first kinds of sounds infants produce
- Sounds of discomfort and distress (crying, fussing)
- Vegetative sounds produced during feeding (burping, coughing)
- No control over the reflexive sounds produced
- Adults tend to respond as if they are true communication attempts


The different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1: Control of phonation (1-4 months)

- Cooing and gooing sounds
- Vowel sounds and some nasalized sounds (airflow directed through nose)
- Infants typically produce consonant sounds far back in the oral cavity (e.g. “gooo”)
- Early consonant sounds are easier for infants to produce than those sounds that require precise manipulation of the tongue, lips or teeth


The different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1: Expansion (3-8 months)

- Gain more control over the articulators
- Produce series of vowel sounds as well as vowel glides
- Experiment with the loudness and pitch of their voices
- Yell, growl, squeal, and make rasperries and trills
- Early infant vocalizations are one component of a dynamic mother-infant communication system, whereby patterns of mother-infant communication relate to infant vocalizations


Describe the different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1: Canonical syllables (5-10 months)

- True babbling appears
- Contains pairs of consonants and vowels (called CV sequences when the consonant precedes the vowel)
- Reduplicated: repeating consonant and vowel pairs (ma ma ma ma)
- Non-reduplicated or varigated: non-repeating consonant and vowel combinations (do ma goo ga)
- Infants prefer nasal sounds and stop sounds in their variegated


Describe the different stages and features of infant vocalizations from birth to 1: Advanced forms (9-18 months)

- Dipthongs: combinations of two vowel sounds within the same syllable
- More complex combinations of consonants and vowels
- Cvc
- Vcv
- Jargon: special type of babble that contains the melodic patterns of an infants’ native langauge
- Not true words because not referential don’t convey meaning


Joint attention

Stimulous engagement of two or more individuals in metal focus on a single external object of focus


Joint attention phases:
Phase 1: birth - 6months

- Infants develop patterns of attending to social partners
- Infants value and participate in interpersonal interactions, learning how to maintain attention and be “organized” with sustained periods of engagement
- Interested in looking at people’s faces (mostly eyes), especially the faces of their parents
Caregiver responsiveness is an important feature of the interaction


Joint attention phases:
Phase 2: 6 months to a year

- Increasing interest in looking at and manipulating the objects around them
- Begin to navigate attention between an object of interest and another person
- Critical avenue for early communication development; fosters important communicative exchanges
- Supported joint engagement: techniques such as speaking with an animated voice or showing an infant novel obejcts
-----Mainting infant's attention related to an infant's ability to engage in sustained attention at 18 months
-----Redirected infant's attention negatively related to infants' ability to engage in sustained attention
- Joint attention, supports’ infants with word learning opportunities
- By about 16 to 19 months, children are adept at using several cues to support inferences about a speakers’ referential intentions
-----Line-of-regard (gaze...gaze following)
----Gestures (e.g. pointing)
----Voice direction
----Body posture
- Intersubjective awareness: the recognition of when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person
- Intentional communication: the infants’ attempts to deliberately communicate with others
-----When infants have intersubjective awareness, they being to interpret others’ referential actions as intentional and begin to use their own actions referentially
- Indicators of intentionality include
---Infant alternated eye gaze between an object and a communicative partner
--- Infant uses ritualized gestures, such as pointing
--- Infant persists toward goals by repeating or modifying their gestures when communicative attempts fail
- Imperative pointing: requests to adults to retrieve objects; around 8-10 mos.
- Declarative pointing: social process between an infant and an adult (after imperative)
-----Call adult’s attention to objects, and to comment on objects
-----Produce and understand declarative ponting later
-----Declarative pointing is linked to infants’ understanding of others’ intentions
- Latest developing: referential


Joint attention phases
Phase 3: Intentional communications with language after 1 year

- Children begin to incorporate langauge into their communicative interactions with other
- Able to engage socially with others and to use langauge to represent events and objects with these interactions
- Active involvement of parents and other adults is still important during this phase


Intersubjective awareness

- The recognition when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person


Intentional communication

the infants attempts deliberately communicate with others
-- when infants have intersubjective awareenss they being to interpret other's referential actions as intentional and begn to use thier own actions referentially


Do infants demonstrate pragmatic skills? What kinds?

- Communicate intentionally (usually by 8 months of age) by using a variety of pre-verbal language functions
- Attention seeking to self
- Attention seeking to events, objects or other people
- Requesting objects
- Requesting attention
- Requestion information
- Greeting
- Transferring
- protesting/rejecting
- Informing


How does routine help with langauge learning

- provie a sense of comfort and predictability and many repeated opportunities for language learning
- By hearing words or phrases repeatedly, infants learn about the sounds and structure of their language


Caregiver Responsiveness techniques

- Describes caregivers’ attention and sensitivity to infants’ vocalizations and communicative attemtps
-----Teaches infants that others value their behaviors and communicative attempts
- Consistent, contingent and appropriate responses to an infant’s communication attempts promotes a child’s ability and desire to sustain long periods of joint attention and increase children’s motivation to communicate
- More responsive langauge input by mothers is linked to children’s language milesones,
----Saying first word
----Producing two-word sentences


Caregiver Responsiveness indicators

- Waiting and listening
- Following the child’s lead
- Joining in and playing
- Being face to face
- Using a variety of questions and labels
- Encouraging turn taking
- Expanding and extending


3 main gestures and an example



Imperative gesture

to ask about something or for something


Declarative pointing

to tell abou tsomething or to name the thing


referential gesture

referring to an object`


50 word mark

two word stage
- marks the true beginning of syntax
---melodic intonation
--- two word production
---marking syllables
- morphology
--- present progressive ing


Talk about basic syntactical development in toddlerhood. What is happening with sentence variety or modalities? Word order?

Longer utterances produce sentences of various types or modalities
Increasing skill at producing different sentence types that vary in pragmatic intent and sytnactic organization
Differences among sentence types reside in how words are grammatically organized at surface level


which morphemes to toddlers use at the end of toddlerhood

Present progressive ing 19-28 months
Plural (s) 27-30 months
Preposition (in) 27-30 months
Preposition on (31-34 months)


What is the approximate size of a child’s expressive vocabulary at this age & stage?

12 mo - first words
20 months - 50 words, adj verbs
24 mothns - comprehends 500, 200 expressively
34 months- comprehends approx. 900, produces 500 asks simple questions


How do you calculate MLU (What are the 3 basic steps)?

Use transcription break down into utterances
Count morphemes
Total number of morphemes / total number of utterances


Why calculate MLU? What can it tell you?

It can tell you the approximate age of whomever you’re studying
It can tell you the stage their in as a language learner