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Flashcards in X - The Blood Vessels Deck (117)
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1

In these arteries, elastic fibers alternate in layers with smooth muscle cells. Examples are the common carotid artery, iliac arteries and pulmonary arteries.

Large or elastic arteries(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 340

2

In these arteries, tunica media is composed primarily of smooth muscle cells, with elastin limited to the internal and external elastic lamina. Examples are the coronaries and renal arteries.

Medium-sized or muscular arteries(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 340

3

These are the principal control points for regulation of physiologic resistance to blood flow.

Arterioles(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 340

4

These vessels are approximately the diameter of an RBC, have an endothelial cell lining but no media.

Capillaries(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

5

Diameter of an RBC.

7-8 um(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

6

These are thin-walled, endothelium lined channels that drain excess interstitial tissue fluid, returning it to blood via the thoracic duct.

Lymphatics(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

7

These are small spherical dilatations, typically in the circle of Willis.

Developmental/berry aneurysms(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

8

These are abnormal, typically small, direct connections between arteries and veins that bypass the intervening capillaries.

Arteriovenous fistulas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

9

Focal, irregular thickening of the walls of medium and large muscular arteries. Segments of the vessel wall are focally thickened by combination of irregular medial and intimal hyperplasia and fibrosis, causing luminal stenosis.

Fibromuscular dysplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 341

10

Literally means hardening of the arteries, term reflecting arterial wall thickening and loss of elasticity, affecting small arteries and arterioles.

Arteriolosclerosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 343

11

Characterized by calcific deposits in muscular arteries, typical in persons older than 50 yrs old. The radiographically visible, palpable calcifications do not encroach on the vessel lumen, and are not clinically significant. SEE SLIDE 10.1.

Mockenberg medial calcific sclerosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 343

12

Characterized by intimal lesions called atheromas that protrude into vascular lumina.

Atherosclerosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 343

13

Three principal components of an atheromatous plaque.

1. Cells (SM cells, macrophages, T cells)2. Extracellular matrix (collagen, elastic fibers, proteoglycans)3. Intracellular and extracellular lipidFibrous cap, central lipid core, neovascularization(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 344

14

Non-modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis. (4)

Increasing ageMale genderFamily historyGenetic abnormalities(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 344

15

Composed of lipid-filled macrophages and smooth muscle cells (foam cells) but are not significantly raised and thus do not cause any disturbance in blood flow. Can appear as early as 1 year, and present in virtually all children older than 10 years old.

Fatty streaks(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 349

16

Most common site of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 350

17

Fate of an atheromatous plaque wherein the luminal surface exposes the bloodstream to highly thrombogenic substances and induces thrombus formation.

Rupture, ulceration or erosion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 351

18

Fate of an atheromatous plaque due to rupture of the overlying fibrous cap or the thin-walled vessels in the areas of neovascularization.

Hemorrhage(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 351

19

Fate of an atheromatous plaque causing discharge of debris into the bloodstream, producing microemboli composed of plaque contents.

Atheroembolism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 351

20

Fate of an atherosclerotic plaque due to increased pressure or ischemic atrophy of the underlying media, with loss of elastic tissue, leading to weakness of the vessel wall.

Aneurysm formation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 351

21

Most common cause of hypertension.

Idiopathic (essential hypertension)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 355

22

HYALINE or HYPERPLASTIC Arteriosclerosis? Consists of a homogenous pink hyaline thickening of the walls of arterioles with loss of underlying structural detail and with narrowing of the lumen. SEE SLIDE 10.2. A major morphologic characteristic in benign nephrosclerosis.

Hyaline arteriolosclerosis. SEE SLIDE 10.2. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 356

23

HYALINE or HYPERPLASTIC Arteriosclerosis? Characteristic of malignant hypertension, associated with "onion-skin" concentric, laminated, thickening of the walls of arterioles with luminal narrowing. SEE SLIDE 10.3. These laminations consist of smooth muscle cells and thickened duplicated basement membrane. Associated with necrotizing arteriolitis.

Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis. SEE SLIDE 10.3. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 356

24

It is a localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel or heart.

Aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)

25

It is a localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel or heart.

Aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

26

Aneurysm which involves all three layers of the arterial wall, or the attenuated wall of the heart.

True aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

27

A breach in the vascular wall leading to an extravascular hematoma that freely communicates with the intravascular space.

False aneurysm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

28

Arises when blood enters the wall of an artery, as a hematoma dissecting between its layers. Often, but not always aneurysmal in origin.

Arterial dissection(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

29

Aneurysms which are spherical outpouchings, involving only a portion of the vessel wall, varying in size from 5-20cm in diameter and often contain thrombi.

Saccular aneurysms(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357

30

Aneurysms which involve diffuse, circumferential dilation of a long vascular segment, varies in diameter and length, and can involve extensive portions of the aortic arch, abdominal aorta,and iliacs.

Fusiform aneurysms(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 357