XI - The Heart Flashcards Preview

TopIt Patho > XI - The Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in XI - The Heart Deck (138)
Loading flashcards...
1

The morphologic and clinical effects of this condition primarily result from progressive damming of blood within the pulmonary circulation. The left ventricle is hypertrophied and dilated, with secondary left atrial dilation. The lungs are heavy and boggy, with perivascular and interstitial transudate, alveolar septal edema, and intra-aleolar edema. Hemosiderin-laden macrophages are present.

Left sided heart failure(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

2

Hemosiderin laden macrophages are also called _______

Heart failure cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

3

This is usually the earliest and most significant compaint of patients in Left sided HF.

Dyspnea(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

4

Most common cause of right sided HF.

Left sided HF(TOPNOTCH)

5

This is a particularly dramatic form of breathlessness, awakening patients from sleeo with attacks of extreme dyspnea bordering on suffocation.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

6

Isolated right sided HF occuring in patients with intrinsic lung disease that result in chronic pulmonary hypertension.

Cor Pulmonale(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

7

Long standing severe right-sided HF leads to fibrosis of centrilobular areas, creating this condition.

Cardiac cirrhosis(TOPNOTCH)

8

The liver is increased in size and weight, a cut section reveals congested red centers of liver lobules surrounded bybpaler, sometimes fatty peripheral regions.

Nutmeg liver (CPC of the liver)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

9

Right-sided HF produces a tense, enlarged spleen, achieving weights of 300-500 grams. Sinusoidal dilation present.

Congestive splenomegaly(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 381

10

This is a hallmark of right sided HF.

Pedal and pretibial edema(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 382

11

Most congenital heart disease arise from faulty embryogenesis during what AOG?

3 - 8 weeks AOG(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 382

12

An abnormal communication between chambers of the heart or blood vessels.

Shunt(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 383

13

These a typically smooth-walled defects near the foramen ovale, usually without associated cardiac abnormalities. Accompanied by right atrial and ventricular dilation, right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation of the pulmonary artery.

Ostium secundum ASD(TOPNOTCH)

14

Reversal of blood flow through a prolonged (left-to-right shunt) due to pulmonary hypertension, yielding right-sided pressures that exceed those on the left side. This causes unoxygenated blood to go into circulation, causing cyanosis.

Eisenmenger syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 383

15

These occur at the lowest part of the atrial septum and can extend to the mitral and tricuspid valves. Abnormalities of the AV Valves are usually present, forming a cleft in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve or septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve.

Ostium primum ASD(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 384

16

Incomplete closure of the ventricular septum leading to left-to-right shunting. The right ventricle is hypertrophied and often dilated. Diameter of pulmonary artery is increased because of the increased volume by the right ventricle.

Ventricular Septal Defect(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 385

17

This arises from the left pulmonary artery and joins the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery.

Ductus arteriosus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 385

18

In this condition, some of the oxygenated blood flowing from the left ventricle is shunted back to the lungs. Proximal pumonary arteries, left atrium and ventricle may become dilated.

Patent ductus arteriosus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 385

19

The most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Heart is large and "boot shaped" as a result of right ventricular hypertrophy.

Tetralogy of Fallot(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 385

20

Components of Tetralogy of Fallot.

Pulmonary valve stenosisOverriding of aortaRight ventricular hypertrophyVentricular septal defect(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 386

21

It is a discordant connection of the ventricles to their vascular outflow. The defect is an abnormal formation of the truncal and aortopulmonary septa. Right ventricular hypertrophy becomes prominent, while the left ventricle becomes somewhat atrophic.

Transposition of the Great Arteries(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 386

22

Predominant manifestation of TGA?

Early cyanosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 387

23

Characterized by tubular narrowing of the aortic segment between the left subclavian artery and the ductus arteriosus. DA is usually patent and is the main source of blood to the distal aorta. RV is hypertrophied and dilated, pulmonary trunk is also dilated.

Preductal "infantile" coarctation of the aorta(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 387

24

Aorta is sharply constricted by a ridge of tissue at or just distal to the ligamentum arteriosum. Constricted segment is made of smooth muscle and elastic fibers that are continuous with the aortic media, and lined by thickened intima. Ductus arteriosus is closed. Proximally, the aortic arch and its vessels are dilated, LV is hypertrophic.

Postductal "adult" coarctation of the aorta(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 387

25

There is upper extremity hypertension, due to poor perfusion of the kidneys, but weak pulses and low blood pressure in the lower extremities. Claudication and coldness of the lower extremities also present. Enlarged intercostal and internal mammary arteries due to collateral circulation, seen as rib "notching" on xray.

Postductal coarctation of the aorta (without a PDA)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388

26

Left-to-right or Right-to-Left shunt?Atrial septal defect

Left-to-right(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388

27

Left-to-right or Right-to-Left shunt?TOF

Right-to-Left(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388

28

Left-to-right or Right-to-Left shunt?VSD

Left-to-right(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388

29

Left-to-right or Right-to-Left shunt?Eisenmenger syndrome

Right-to-Left (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388

30

Left-to-right or Right-to-Left shunt?Transposition of great arteries

Right-to-Left(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed. p. 388