XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Patho Flash Cards 2016 > XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) > Flashcards

Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Deck (166)
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Syndrome of DM, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, and hypochlorhydria is seen in what tumor?

Somatostatinoma or delta cell tumor (TOPNOTCH)


Approximately 60%-80% of patients with DM will develop some form of diabetic retinopathy after how many years from the time of diagnosis?

15-20 years (TOPNOTCH)


The fundamental lesion of DM retinopathy

Neovascularization (TOPNOTCH)


What special pattern of acute pyelonephritis is common in diabetics compared to non diabetics?

Necrotizing papillitis or papillary necrosis (TOPNOTCH)


These are PAS positive glomerular lesions made distinctive by ball like deposits of laminated matrix situated in the periphery of the glomerulus

Nodular glomerulosclerosis or Kimmelstiel Wilson lesion (TOPNOTCH)


What are the three most important glomerular lesions seen in DM?

Basement membrane thickening, diffuse mesangial sclerosis, and nodular glomerulosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)


What is the hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease?

Accelerated atherosclerosis (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most common cause of death in diabetics?

Myocardial Infarction (TOPNOTCH)


What morphological change seen in pancreas is more commonly associated with DM Type 2 than DM Type 1?

Amyloid replacement of islets. SEE SLIDE 20.18. (TOPNOTCH)


What is the hallmark of hypocalcemia?



The most common cause of clinically apparent hypercalcemia

Malignancy (TOPNOTCH)


The most common cause of asymptomatic elevated blood calcium

Primary hyperparathyroidism (TOPNOTCH)


A peculiar feature of this type of thyroid carcinoma is the presence of multicentric C cell hyperplasia

Familial Medullary Cancers of the thyroid (TOPNOTCH)


Acellular amyloid deposits are seen in what type of thyroid cancer?

Medullary Carcinoma. SEE SLIDE 20.9. (TOPNOTCH)


These are concentrically calfcified structures that are often present in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. SEE SLIDE 20.19.

Psamomma bodies (TOPNOTCH)


The major risk factor predisposing to thyroid cancer

Ionizing radiation, particularly in the first two decades of life (TOPNOTCH)


What variant of craniopharyngoma frequently contains radiologicaly demonstrable calcifications?

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most common cause of hyperpituitarism?

Adenoma (TOPNOTCH)


Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary occurs when approximately how much of the parenchyma is lost?



These cysts are lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium with occasional goblet cells and anterior pituitary cells, can accumulate proteinaceous fluid and expand, compromising the normal gland

Rathke Cleft Cyst (TOPNOTCH)


The craniopharyngomas are thought to arise from what structure?

Vestigial remnants of Rathke pouch (TOPNOTCH)


What is the earliest and most consistent feature of hyperthyroidism?

Cardiac manifestations (TOPNOTCH)


This condition presents with impaired developments of the skeletal system and central nervous system, manifested by severe mental retardation, short stature, coarse facial features, a protruding tongue, and umbilical hernia

Cretinism (TOPNOTCH)


These are epithelial cells with abudant eosinophilic, granular ctyoplasm seen in Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hurthle cells. SEE SLIDE 20.2. (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most important feature in making the distinction between a thyroid adenoma and a multinodular goiter?

In adenoma, the neoplastic cells are demarcated from the adjacent parenchyma by a well defined intact capsule. In multinodular goiters, they lack a well formed capsule (TOPNOTCH)


What is the hallmark of all follicular adenomas?

Well formed capsule encircling the tumor. So, careful evaluation of the integrity of the capsule is therefore critical in distinguishing follicular adenomas from follicular carcinomas which demostrate capsular and or vascular invasion (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most common clinically significant congenital anomaly of the thyroid?

Thyroglossal duct or cyst (TOPNOTCH)


Lamellar keratin formation or "wet keratin" is a diagnostic feature of what tumor?

Adamantinomatous craniopharyngoma (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: In its hyperplastic phase, they thyroid gland is diffusely and symmetrically enlarged and the follicles are lined by crowded columnar cells, which may pile up and form projections similar to those seen in Grave's disease

Diffuse nontoxic (simple) goiter (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: Variant of papillary carcinoma that is marked with tall columnar cells with intensely eosinophilic cytoplasm lining the papillary structures. The cells are at least twice as tall as they are wide.

Tall cell variant (TOPNOTCH)