XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Patho Flash Cards 2016 > XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) > Flashcards

Flashcards in XX - The Endocrine System (with pics) Deck (166)
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151

A 44 year old male presents with intermittent, intense epigastric pain unrelieved by antacids or H2 blockers. He also has occasional diarrhea. An endoscopy revealed multiple gastric, duodenal, and jejunal ulcers. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is considered. Where can the tumor be located? (A) pancreas (B) duodenum (C) peripancreatic soft tissues (D) all of the above

all of the above ("gastrinoma triangle") (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., pp788-789

152

Which of the following is the commonest cause of Cushing syndrome? (A) anterior pituitary tumor (B) adrenocortical neoplasm (C) small cell lung carcinoma (D) medication

medication (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., pp 789-790

153

Which of the following findings is most compatible with adrenal Cushing syndrome? (A) elevated ACTH, elevated cortisol (B) decreased ACTH, decreased cortisol (C) decreased ACTH, elevated cortisol (D) elevated ACTH, decreased cortisol

decreased ACTH, elevated cortisol (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 789

154

How does one distinguish a pituitary adenoma from normal pituitary parenchyma?

Absence of reticulin network in pituitary adenoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 718

155

Mutation associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4). That's why it's a type 4 cell-mediated hypersensitivity. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 724

156

Eponym for multinodular goiter whose nodules produce thyroid hormones independent of TSH stimulation

Plummer Syndrome (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 728

157

How does one differentiate a thyroid nodule from a thyroid adenoma?

Nodules do not demonstrate compression of adjacent parenchyma and LACK a well-formed capsule. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 728

158

How does one differentiate a parathyroid adenoma from a parathyroid carcinoma?

Cytologic detail is unreliable. Invasion of surrounding tissues and metastasis are the only definitive way to say. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 736

159

Bone change seen in hyperparathyroidism, when the cortex is grossly thinned and the marrow contains fibrous tissue and foci of hemorrhage and cysts (brown tumors)

Osteitis fibrosa cystica. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 737

160

TYPE 1 or TYPE 2 diabetes: Reduction in number and size of islet cells

Most often seen in Type 1. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 744

161

TYPE 1 or TYPE 2 diabetes: Leukocytic infiltration of mononuclear cells

Both, but more severe in Type 1. At time of diagnosis, this inflammation may not be seen anymore. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 744

162

TYPE 1 or TYPE 2 diabetes: Amyloid replacement of islets

Type 2 (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 744

163

Moprhologic change in the adrenal glands seen in: hypercortisolism caused by EXOGENOUS glucocorticoids

Cortical atrophy, due to lack of stimulation by ACTH. Zona glomerulosa is of normal thickness since this functions independently of ACTH. (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 753

164

Moprhologic change in the adrenal glands seen in: hypercortisolism caused by ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome

Diffuse bilateral hyperplasia (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 753

165

Disease that is associated with ADRENOMEDULLARY DYSPLASIA, which is the incomplete migration of the chromaffin cells to the center of the gland.

Salt-losing 21-hydroxylase deficiency (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 756

166

Reason behind skin pigmentation associated with Addison Disease

There is high ACTH due to primary adrenocortical insufficiency. ACTH shares the same precursor with MSH, which stimulates melanin production. (POMC) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p 759