XXIII - The Nervous System (with pics) Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Patho Flash Cards 2016 > XXIII - The Nervous System (with pics) > Flashcards

Flashcards in XXIII - The Nervous System (with pics) Deck (213)
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151

What are the two most common primary tumors of the optic nerve?

Glioma and Meningioma (TOPNOTCH)

152

Morphology: characterized histologically by chronic inflammation and replacement of orbital fat by fibrosis

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (TOPNOTCH)

153

What is the most common malignancy of the eyelid?

Basal cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)

154

Morphology: histological hallmark is the thinning of the cornea with breaks in the Bowman's layer

Keratoconus (TOPNOTCH)

155

Morphology: deposition of calcium in Bowmans layer

Calcific Band keratopathy (TOPNOTCH)

156

This type of keratopathy develops in patients who are exposed chronically to high levels of ultraviolet light

Actinic band keratopathy (TOPNOTCH)

157

Morphology: numerous drop like excrescences - guttata- protrude downward from Descemet's membrane

Fuchs dystrophy (TOPNOTCH)

158

Also known as the End-Stage Eye

Phthisis Bulbi (TOPNOTCH)

159

Morphology: diffuse loss of ganglion cells and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, in advanced cases, the optic nerve is both cupped and atrophic

Glaucomatous optic nerve damage (TOPNOTCH)

160

Flexner Wintersteiner Rosettes

Retinoblastoma (TOPNOTCH)

161

Morphology: A neovascular membrane is positioned between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruchs membrane

Age related macular degeneration (TOPNOTCH)

162

"Waxy pallor" of the optic disk. SEE SLIDE 23.28

Retinitis Pigmentosa (TOPNOTCH)

163

In this condition, both rods and cones are lost to apoptosis

Retinitis Pigmentosa (TOPNOTCH)

164

Elschnig' spots

Malignant hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

165

What is known to be a reliable histological marker of diabetes mellitus in the eye?

Thickening of the BM of the epithelium of the pars plicata of the ciliary body (TOPNOTCH)

166

Cytoid bodies

Hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

167

Macular star

Malignant hypertension (TOPNOTCH)

168

Morphology: Characterized by diffuse granulomatous inflammation of the urea. Plasma cells are typically absent, but eosiophils may be identified in the infiltrate

Sympathetic ophthalmia (TOPNOTCH)

169

What is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults?

Metastasis to the uvea, typically to the choroid (TOPNOTCH)

170

What is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults?

Uveal melanoma (TOPNOTCH)

171

These are the resident monocyte-lineage population of CNS that proliferate and accumulate in response to injury.

Microglia (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1254

172

Subfalcine(cingulate) herniation leads to compression of what blood vessel?

Anterior cerebral artery(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1255

173

Transtentoria(uncinate) herniation compress what structures?

CN III and Posterior Cerebral artery(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1255

174

Patient X who had a moderate traumatic injury presented with lethargy. 12 hours later it he progressed rapidly to having dilated pupils and impairment of ocular movements. This is most likely due to:

Transtentorial (uncinate) herniation/CN III compression (TOPNOTCH)

175

A malformation characterized by reduction in the number of gyri, agyria in extreme cases

Lissencephaly(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1257

176

Infarcts in the supratentorial periventricular white matter in premature infants presenting with chalky yellow plaques consisting of discrete regions of white matter necrosis and calcification

Perventricular leukomalacia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1259

177

Most common site of contusions in the brain

Frontal and temporal lobes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1260

178

Vascular injury presenting with slowly evolving neurologic symptoms, often with a delay from the time of injury(most often within 48 hours of injury) Grossly, it appears as a collection of freshly clotted blood along the brain surface, without extension into the depths of sulci.

Subdural hematoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1262

179

After a vehicular crash, patient presented with quadriplegia and respiratory distress. Spinal cord injury was suspected. This can be due to damage to what level of vertebra?

Above C4(TOPNOTCH)

180

CNS cells most sensitive to ischemia

Neurons(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 1264