Y5 - Knee: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear Flashcards Preview

Year 5 Acute Care & Trauma > Y5 - Knee: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Y5 - Knee: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear Deck (26):
1

what is the function of the ACL

prevents anterior tibial displacement

2

where does the ACL originate

the posteromedial aspect of the intercondylar notch on the lateral femoral condyle

3

where do the proximal fibres of the ACL run

along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle

4

what are the two bundles of the ACL

anteromedial
posterolateral

5

where does the ACL attach

onto the articular surface of the tibia, medial to the attachment of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus

6

what does the ACL blend into

the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus

7

what is the common mechanism of injury for ACL tear

sudden change in direction causing the knee to rotate inwards

8

epi

more common in women than men due to anatomical differences in ACL

9

why are ACL tears more common in women than men

the synovial joint through which the ACL passes is smaller in women than in men causing greater susceptibility to damage due to higher levels of strain
also women use their quads>hamstrings which causes additional strain

10

define

a ligament which runs diagonally in the middle of the knee from the posterior femur to the anterior tibia

11

function of ACL

prevents anterior tibia displacement and provides rotational stability

12

what are the different strains for an ACL injury

Grade 1 - ACL has been stretched, knee is still stable
Grade 2 - ACL has been stretched and is now loose (partial tear)
Grade 3 - ACL has been completely torn

13

aetiology of ACL injury

changing direction rapidly
stopping suddenly
landing from a jump
direct contact or collision

14

epi

more common in women

15

signs and symptoms

a popping sound
pain & swelling
haemarthrosis
loss of range of motion
tenderness

16

who is avulsion with ACL injury most common in

children

17

what is the most accurate manoeuvre for detecting an acute ACL tear

the Lachmans test

18

what is the most accurate manoeuvre for detecting a chronic ACL tear

pivot shift test

19

what is segonds fracture

a small capsular avulsion off the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia

20

investigations

XRay - usually negative, may show segonds sign
MRI

21

where may there by tenderness

at the lateral femoral condyle, the lateral tibial plateau

22

management

depends on lifestyle, sedentary vs intense dynamic demands

23

what different types of surgery are performed for ACL repairs

bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft
hamstring tendon grafts

24

complications

bone bruising
medial collateral ligament injury

25

what is the Unhappy Triad of O'Donoghu

a torn ACL
a torn MCL
a torn medial meniscus

26

prognosis

good mechanical reconstruction
however few sportsman return, suggesting psychological factors