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Flashcards in Zoonosis Deck (22)
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1

Define sentinel

An indicator of the presence of disease.

2

What's the intermediate host of Taenia solium?

pigs

3

What is the causative agent of rabies?

Lyssavirus (RNA virus)

4

What is the reservoir for rabies?

carnivores and bats.

5

What is the reservoir for hantavirus?

rodents - usually asymptomatic

6

In what way(s) is(are) hantavirus transmitted?

Primary - aerosol (rodent urine or feces)

Secondary - bites by rodents

7

In what ways can humans contract anthrax?

Inhalation

Cutaneous - spores enter open wound OR biting fly

Ingestion - infected animals

8

What are the postmortem signs of anthrax in cattle?

anticoagulopathy, rapid bloating, lack of rigor mortis, bleeding from orifices

9

What steps should be taken when a vet encounters a potential anthrax case?

1.) NO NECROPSY

2.) Burn or bury carcasses

3.) Inform public health officials.

10

What are the signs/symptoms of Brucellosis infection (AKA: undulant fever or Malta fever or Bang's Dz)?

Recurring fever, can last for months

Abortions

Pleiomorphic symptoms: neurologic, endocarditis, chronic fatigue.

11

How is Brucellosis/undulant fever/Malta fever/Bang's Disease transmitted?

Ingestion, mucous membrane exposure, or percutaneous inoculation with:

Aborted placenta, fetus or fetal fluids

Unpasteurized milk

Can be also found in blood, urine, semen, feces, and uterine/vaginal secretions

Feed/water contaminated with these materials.

12

What are some methods currently being implemented to prevent the spread of Brucella?

Eliminate the animal reservoir

Swine monitored (abattoir-based)

Reduce public exposure through pasteurization of milk and milk used to make soft cheeses

13

Brucella melitensis: what species are affected, where is it found and how bad is it for people?

Goats; also sheep, caribou, reindeer, pigs, dogs

Mostly found in the Mediterranean and other intensive goat-farming regions

Most pathogenic for people

14

Brucella abortus: What species are affected, where is it found and how bad is it for people?

Cattle; also bison, buffalo, elk, horses, dogs

Worldwide distribution, except where eradication programs have been successful

Less pathogenic than melitensis, but more pathogenic than other strains.

15

What are the two zoonotic diseases caused by borrelia spp and what is the vector for each?

Lyme disease type - hard ticks

Relapsing fever type - soft ticks

16

What is the reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi?

Usually sylvatic ("forest-dwelling) rodents, sometimes lizards (regional)

17

In which species does Borrelia burgdorferi cause disease?

People, dogs, horses

18

What are the signs/symptoms of Borrelia burgdorferi infection? Chronic dz manifestations?

Acute febrile illness, myalgia, arthralgia

Chronic dz manifestations: CV, neurological, joint problems

19

What's the causative agent of West Nile?

Flavivirus

20

In what species is West Nile Virus maintained?

Birds - mosquitos

21

How is West Nile Virus transmitted?

Mosquito bite

Secondary transmission: bloodborne infection, laboratory exposure, breast milk (NOT handling dead birds).

22

What are the signs/symptoms of infection of West Nile Virus in horses?

neurologic: ataxia, hypermetria (movements overreach intended goal), weakness, peri- or tetraparesis (paralysis in hind or all four limbs), recumbency, death.