Zootoxins and Illicit substances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Zootoxins and Illicit substances Deck (39):
1

T/F: Marijuana absorption is increased if it is consumed with a fatty meal.

True

2

Which receptors does marijuana bind to? Which one is found in the brain and what does effect binding to this receptor have?

CB1 and CB2

CB-1: Alters the activity of various neurotransmitters, affects memory, perception and control of movement

3

Where in the animal are the toxins associated with toads found?

Parotid glands

4

Which type of pit viper is the culprit in most dog envenomations?

Copperheads

5

Which illicit substance is highly plasma bound and undergoes enterohepatic recirculation?

Marijuana

6

T/F: Alkalinizing the urine increases the renal excretion of amphetamines.

False, acidic urine does.

7

Which enzyme spreads pit viper venom in the body?

Hyaluronidase

8

Marijuana contains a resin that causes irritation of ____ and ____.

Muscles
Nerves

9

What are the clinical signs associated with marijuana toxicity?

CNS depression
Ataxia, incoordination, tremors, weakness, mydriasis, hypothermia
Vomiting

10

Which neurotransmitters are associated with bufo toad intoxiation?

Catecholamines

Serotonin

11

What are the non-enzymatic proteins and peptides in pit viper venom called?

Killing fraction

12

T/F: Bufotenine is a schedule I substance that causes hallucinations and also vasoconstriction.

True

13

What is organs/body systems are mainly affected by toad intoxication?

Heart
Blood vessels
CNS

14

T/F: To treat marijuana toxicosis the repeated administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic is indicated.

True

15

Why might emetics nor be effective in marijuana toxicosis?

THC has an anti-emetic effect

16

What are the cardioactive steroid toxins that inhibit Na/K ATPase produced by toads?

Bufagenins
Bufotoxins

17

What is the primary effect of pit viper venom?

Hypocoagulation

18

Which 2 toxins produced by toads cause hallucinations?

Bufotenine

Indole allylamines

19

T/F Most toad intoxications occur in the early hours of the morning in the springtime.

False, summer evenings (toads are nocturnal)

20

What type of coral snake venom can be treated using antivenin?

M. fuluvius, North American coral snake

21

Which zootoxin is associated with CNS depression, quadripledia with decreased spinal reflexes, respiratory paralysis, hypotension and V-tach in dogs and cats?

Coral snake

22

What can you administer IV to treat the systemic acidosis caused by cocaine toxicosis?

Sodium bicarb or LRS

23

Your practice in in southern Texas. L.L. Drool-J presents to you with brick-red mucus membranes, foaming at the mouth, hyperrthermia, tachycardia and is barking and crying. What intoxication do you suspect and how was the toxin absorbed? How will you treat L.L.?

Toad intoxication

Absorbed from the mucus membranes

Flush the mouth, give activated charcoal.

24

When pit viper venom causes cell membrane disruption and the uncoupling of phosphorylation, vasoactive amines are released via what enzyme?

Phospholipase A2

25

What local tissue reactions are associated with pit viper envenomation?

Bleeding, swelling, edema, ecchymosis, petechia, +/- necrosis

26

Which pain medication should you avoid when treating pit viper envenomation?

Morphine

27

T/F: Steroids and NSAIDs are not indicated in the treatment of pit viper envenomation.

True.

28

T/F Most pit viper envenomations occur between April and October.

True, 90%

29

Your client calls you freaking out because Fopdoodle, per precious poodle, has been bitten by a rattlesnake on the paw. You tell her to bring Fopdoodle in as soon as possible. What else do you advise? What is the first thing you will do when Fopdoodle arrives?

Keep calm

Keep the bitten paw below the heart

Place an IV catheter

30

T/F: Antivenin is a polyvalent croatalid immune fab that can be used to treat rattlesnake envenomation.

True .

31

Which zootoxin is associated with elevated fibrinogen and CK?

Coral snake venom

32

What systems may fail after pit viper envenomation?

Liver and renal

33

The canine rattlesnake vaccine protects against all rattlesnake species venom except which one?

Mojave

34

Your patient, Pickles the dog, presents with circling, tremors and seizures, as well as hypersalivation, hyperthermia and mydriasis. Pickle's mom thinks he may have gotten into some of her son's medication. What do you suspect and how will you treat it?

Amphetamine toxicosis

Induce emesis

Give activated charcoal (repeated doses if the drug is sustained-release)

Give phenothiazine derivatives IV

Ammonium chloride to acidify the urine

35

Cocaine toxicosis causes degeneration of which muscle?

Myocardium/heart

36

What toxicosis is associated with a block of the reupake of norepinephrine and dopamine resulting in CNS stimulation and is also an excitatory receptor agonist for dopamine?

Amphetamine

37

What alkaloid from leaves of Erythroxylon coca or Erythroxylon monogynum is a sympathomimetic that directly effects the myocardium?

Cocaine

38

What treatment is counter-indicated in the treatment of cocaine toxicosis? Why?

Inducing emesis
May trigger seizures

39

T/F Broad spectrum antibiotics are indicated in the treatment of pit viper envenomation.

True