a level biology ocr a

This class was created by Brainscape user Sreya Wadud. Visit their profile to learn more about the creator.

Decks in this class (103)

3.2 Water
State the different properties of...,
Why does being polar help make wa...,
How does water being a metabolite...
9  cards
3.3 Carbohydrates
What are carbohydrates,
What is a monosaccharide,
What are sugars
26  cards
3.4 Testing for Carbohydrates
What is a reducing sugar,
Name a non reducing sugar,
Name the reducing sugars
16  cards
3.5 Lipids
What is a lipid,
What is the difference between fa...,
What is a triglyceride
18  cards
3.6 Structure of Proteins
What is a peptide,
What is an amino acid,
What is the general structure of ...
13  cards
3.7 Types of Proteins
What are the 2 main types of prot...,
Describe the properties of globul...,
Insulin is a fibrous globular pro...
14  cards
3.8 Nucleic Acids
What are nucleic acids,
What is a nucleotide,
What 3 groups are nucleotides mad...
20  cards
3.9 DNA Replication & Genetic Code
What is dna replication,
Outline the steps of dna replication,
What enzymes are involved in dna ...
13  cards
3.10 Protein Synthesis
Which 2 main processes does prote...,
What is protein synthesis,
Where does transcription occur
13  cards
3.11 ATP
What is atp,
What do cells require energy in t...,
What is the equation for hydrolys...
12  cards
5.1 Structure & Function of Plasma Membranes
What is the main function of memb...,
What is compartmentalisation,
What is the importance of compart...
19  cards
5.2 Factors Affecting Membrane Structure
How does temperature affect membr...,
If the temperature is increased d...,
How does the type of solvent affe...
9  cards
5.3 Diffusion
What is passive transport,
What is diffusion,
What factors affect the rate of d...
7  cards
5.4 Active Transport
What is active transport,
Outline the steps of active trans...,
What is bulk transport
9  cards
5.5 Osmosis
What is osmosis,
What is water potential,
What is the symbol for water pote...
22  cards
6.1 Cell Cycle
What are the 2 main phases of the...,
What is interphase,
What processes occur during inter...
18  cards
6.2 Mitosis
What is mitosis,
What are the stages of mitosis,
What happens during prophase
17  cards
6.3 Meiosis
What is a gamete,
What is a diploid cell,
What is a haploid cell
17  cards
6.4 Organisation & Specialisation of Cells
What is differentiation,
How does differentiation occur,
What are specialised cells
24  cards
6.5 Stem Cells
What is differentiation,
What is a stem cell,
Why must stem cell division be st...
14  cards
7.1 Specialised Exchange Surfaces
What do specialised exchange surf...,
What factors determine the need f...,
What factors mean an organism may...
17  cards
7.2 The Mammalian Gaseous Exchange System
Mammals require a specialised exc...,
How do mammals change the composi...,
Structures in the human gaseous e...
27  cards
7.3 Measuring the Process
What 3 ways can the volume of air...,
How does a spirometer work,
Why does the spirometer trace not...
10  cards
7.4 Ventilation & Gas Exchange in Other Organisms
Insects have evolved a gaseous ex...,
What are the components of the ga...,
What are spiracles
24  cards
8.2 Blood Vessels
Different blood vessels have diff...,
What are the different types of t...,
What is the endothelium layer in ...
18  cards
8.3 Blood, Tissue Fluid & Lymph
Why does tissue fluid have a simi...,
What does the blood carry,
What 3 plasma proteins does the b...
27  cards
8.4 Transport of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
How is oxygen transported around ...,
What type of molecule is haemoglobin,
What is the formula for oxyhaemog...
31  cards
8.5 The Heart
What are the atria,
Describe the muscular walls of th...,
What are the ventricles
27  cards
9.1 Transport Systems in Dicotyledonous Plants
Why do plants need transport systems,
Why may plants need transport sys...,
What is the arrangement of vascul...
16  cards
9.2 Water Transport in Multicellular Plants
What is the function of transport...,
What are the uses of water in plants,
What is turgor pressure
17  cards
9.3 Transpiration
What is transpiration,
What is a transpiration stream,
How does water move through the p...
18  cards
9.4 Translocation
What is a source,
What is a sink,
What are examples of sources
9  cards
9.5 Plant Adaptations to Water Availability
When plants open their stomata th...,
What are xerophytes,
What are hydrophytes
22  cards
10.1 Classification
What are taxonomic groups,
What are the reasons for classify...,
What is binomial nomenclature
6  cards
10.2 The 5 Kingdoms
What are the 5 kingdoms,
What are the general features of ...,
What are the general features of ...
16  cards
10.3 Phylogeny
What is phylogeny,
What are the advantages of phylog...,
What is the main difference betwe...
5  cards
10.4 Evidence for Evolution
What is the evidence for evolution,
What is palaentology,
What is comparative anatomy
13  cards
10.5 Types of Variation
What is variation,
Describe explain the 2 different ...,
What are the 2 main types of fact...
6  cards
10.7 Adaptations
0  cards
11.1 Biodiversity
9  cards
11.2 Types of Sampling
What is sampling,
Why is sampling used,
In what 2 ways can sampling be used
14  cards
11.3 Sampling Techniques
Which techniques may be used to s...,
How can a quadrat be used to samp...,
To collect the most valid represe...
8  cards
11.5 Calculating Genetic Biodiversity
What is the importance of genetic...,
Which factors increase genetic bi...,
Which factors decrease genetic bi...
9  cards
11.6 Factors Affecting Biodiversity
In what ways do humans influence ...,
In what ways does deforestation a...,
In what ways does agriculture inf...
4  cards
11.7 Reasons for Maintaining Biodiversity
What are the reasons for maintain...,
What are the aesthetic reasons fo...,
What are the economic reasons for...
5  cards
12.2 Animal & Plant Diseases
What are the examples of plant di...,
What are examples of animal diseases,
What is the prevention treatment ...
7  cards
12.4 Plant Defences Against Pathogens
How to plant cells recognise an a...,
What is callose,
What are the 2 types of defences ...
8  cards
12.5 Non-specific Animal Defences Against Pathogens
What are non specific defences,
What are 3 barriers to pathogens ...,
What are the non specific defence...
15  cards
12.6 Specific Immune System
What are antigens,
What are antibodies,
Describe the structure of an anti...
9  cards
12.7 Preventing & Treating Disease
What are the different types of i...,
What is natural active immunity,
What is natural passive immunity
10  cards
13.2 Neurones
What is the role of the nervous s...,
What is the structure of a genera...,
What are the 3 types of neurones ...
25  cards
13.3 Sensory Receptors
What is a sensory receptor,
What are the 2 properties of sens...,
Outline the mechanism by which a ...
7  cards
13.4 Nervous Transmission
What is the definition of resting...,
How is resting potential maintain...,
How does a stimulus induce an act...
18  cards
13.5 Synapses
What is a synapse,
How are electrical impulses trans...,
What are the roles of synapses
14  cards
13.6 Organisation of the Nervous System
The mammalian nervous system is s...,
What does the central nervous sys...,
What does the peripheral nervous ...
20  cards
13.7 Structure & Function of the Brain
What are the parts of the gross s...,
What is the main function of the ...,
Which functions may the cerebrum ...
21  cards
13.8 Reflexes
What is a reflex action,
Outline the steps of a reflex arc,
What is a spinal reflex
8  cards
13.9 Voluntary & Involuntary Muscles
What are the 3 types of muscle,
Describe the properties of the di...,
Describe the properties of skelet...
26  cards
13.10 Sliding Filament Model
What changes occur to the structu...,
Describe the structure of myosin,
Describe the structure of actin f...
10  cards
14.1 Hormonal Communication
What is a hormone,
What is an endocrine gland,
What is the function of the pinea...
19  cards
14.2 Structure & Function of the Pancreas
What are the 2 main function of t...,
What is an exocrine gland,
What is an endocrine gland
10  cards
14.3 Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration
What are the processes of decreas...,
What are the processes of increas...,
How does insulin decrease blood g...
8  cards
14.4 Diabetes & Control
What is type 1 diabetes,
What is type 2 diabetes,
How can type 1 diabetes be treated
19  cards
14.5 Coordinated Responses
Which part of the nervous system ...,
How does the hypothalamus bring a...,
What physiological changes occur ...
6  cards
14.6 Controlling Heart Rate
Which part of the brain is most r...,
Which centre in the medulla is li...,
Which centre in the medulla is li...
24  cards
15.3 Thermoregulation in Endotherms
What is an endotherm,
What is the name of the type of r...,
What are the 2 main types of ther...
19  cards
15.4 Excretion, Homeostasis & the Liver
What is excretion,
What are the main waste products ...,
What are the blood vessels of the...
33  cards
15.5 Structure & Function of the Mammalian Kidney
What 2 homeostatic roles is the k...,
Blood kidneys using what vessel,
Blood from kidney inferior vena c...
41  cards
15.6 The Kidney & Osmoregulation
What is osmoregulation,
What does adh control,
What are examples of water gains
14  cards
15.7 Urine & Diagnosis
Why is urine well suited for diag...,
What is immunoassay,
What are monoclonal antibodies
10  cards
15.8 Kidney Failure
What are the causes of kidney fai...,
What are the effects of infection...,
What are the effects of kidney fa...
25  cards
16.1 Plant Hormones & Growth in Plants
What roles do auxins have in plants,
What roles do gibberellins have i...,
What roles does ethene have in pl...
17  cards
16.2 Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress
What are examples of abiotic stre...,
What is photoperiodism what chang...,
How does abscission help a plant ...
7  cards
16.3 Plant Responses to Herbivory
What physical defences of plants,
What chemical defences of,
How do tannins defend plants
7  cards
16.4 Tropisms in Plants
What are tropisms,
What is the growth of plants in r...,
What is the growth of plants in r...
13  cards
16.5 Commercial Use of Plant Hormones
How can weedkiller be made using ...,
What is the commercial use of ethene,
How can auxins act as rooting pow...
7  cards
17.1 Energy Cycles
Describe the interrelationship be...,
In respiration why is the energy ...
2  cards
17.2 ATP Synthesis
In what 2 ways can electrons be e...,
What is the electron transport chain,
In the electron transport chain e...
6  cards
17.3 Photosynthesis
What are pigment molecules,
After absorbing light energy to w...,
What is the primary pigment molec...
32  cards
17.4 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
What is a limiting factor,
What are the possible limiting fa...,
Why is water not considered a lim...
9  cards
18.1 Glycolysis
What is glycolysis,
Outline the process of glycolysis,
What is the purpose of phosphoryl...
12  cards
18.2 Link Reaction / Oxidative Decarboxylation
What is the role of the link reac...,
Where does the link reaction take...,
Outline the steps of the link rea...
14  cards
18.3 The Krebs Cycle
Outline the processes occuring in...,
How many of each product is produ...,
What is a coenzyme
8  cards
18.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
What is oxidative phosphorylation,
Outline the processes which occur...,
What is the final electron accept...
7  cards
18.5 Anaerobic Respiration
What is anaerobic respiration,
Anaerobic respiration results in ...,
Why do microorganisms carry out a...
22  cards
18.6 Respiratory Substrates
What are respiratory substrates,
What apparatus is used to measure...,
What is the formula for the respi...
8  cards
19.1 Mutations & Variation
What is a mutation,
What is a substitution mutation,
What are deletion insertion mutat...
21  cards
19.2 Control of Gene Expression
What is transcriptional control,
What does transcriptional control...,
Describe the different states of dna
21  cards
19.3 Body Plans
What are homeobox genes,
What is the difference between ho...,
A homeobox is a section of dna 18...
8  cards
22.1 Natural Cloning in Plants
5  cards
22.2 Artificial Cloning in Plants
What is micropropagation,
When is micropropagation used,
Outline the steps by which a plan...
5  cards
22.3 Cloning in Animals
How does cloning occur in inverte...,
How does cloning occur in vertebr...,
What are the 2 types of animal cl...
9  cards
22.4 Microorganisms & Biotechnology
What is bioremediation,
What is biotechnology,
What are the advantages of using ...
13  cards
22.5 Microorganisms, Medicines & Bioremediation
How is penicillin produced,
How is insulin produced commercially,
What are the 2 different approach...
5  cards
22.6 Culturing Microorganisms in the Laboratory
What is the culture of microorgan...,
Why must health safety regulation...,
What are aseptic techniques
9  cards
22.7 Culturing Microorganisms on an Industrial Scale
What are primary metabolites,
What are secondary metabolites,
What are the 2 different types of...
6  cards
22.8 Using Immobilised Enzymes
What are the advantages of using ...,
Why may extracellular enzymes be ...,
Why may intracellular enzymes be ...
19  cards
24.1 Population Size
Describe explain the stages of th...,
What are the 2 types of limiting ...,
What are examples of biotic facto...
8  cards
24.2 Competition
Competition is an example of a bi...,
What are the 2 main types of comp...,
Species being outcompeted is spec...
4  cards
24.3 Predator-Prey Relationships
Predation is a type of interspeci...
1  cards
24.4 Conservation & Preservation
What is conservation,
What is preservation,
What does reclamation entail
6  cards
11.8 Methods of Maintaining Biodiversity
What is conservation,
What is in situ conservation,
What is ex situ conservation
12  cards
4.1 Enzyme Action
What is an enzyme,
What is metabolism,
What are anabolic reactions
20  cards

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