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Flashcards in 0-1 a Chapter 2 Deck (22):
1

Actors in the sentencing process

Prosecutor
judge
probation staff

2

concurrent sentences

one or more sentences imposed at the same time and served simultaneously

3

consecutive sentences

one or more sentences imposed at the same time and served one after the other

4

good time

a deduction of time awarded to inmates for good behavior

5

sentencing sanctions

the various types of sentences that can be awarded by the courts

6

indeterminate sentence

permits the early release from a correctional institute after the offender has served a required minimum portion of his or her sentence

7

determinate sentence

sentencing that imposes a sentence for a definite term.

8

main forms of determinate sentences

flat time
mandatory
presumptive

9

sentencing guidelines

federal and state guidelines intended to ensure fair sentencing by ending the reduction of terms in prison by grants of parole, ensuring that persons committing similar crimes serve similar terms, and ensuring that sentences reflect the severity of the criminal conduct

10

presumptive sentencing

sentencing in which the legislature sets penalties for criminal acts

11

federal sentencing guidelines

guidelines adopted by congress and until the US Supreme court ruled otherwise were to be binding on federal judges

12

mandatory minimum sentence

the imposition of sentences required by statute for those convicted of a particular crime with specific circumstances such as selling drugs to a minor close to a school or robbery with a firearm

13

three strikes laws

rules for repeat offenders that require long sentences without parole for conviction of a third or higher order felony

14

truth in sentencing

a close connection between the imposed sentence and the actual time spent in prison. The time that offenders actually serve on their sentence

15

non-legal factors in sentencing

contextual factors
social class
gender
race
age
victim characteristics

16

racial disparity in sentencing

an actual pattern of racial discrimination in sentencing

17

explain the role of the court team in the sentencing process

prosecutor, judge, probation staff
recent trend toward more power for prosecutors

18

explain indeterminate sentencing

30+ states
permits the early release from a correctional institute after the offender has served a required minimum portion of his or her sentence

19

various forms of determinate sentencing

sentencing guidelines
mandatory minimum sentencing
three-strike laws
truth in sentencing
remains popular in nearly 1/3 of states

20

role of sentencing guidelines

beginning with federal sentencing guidelines, 20 states have adopted sentencing guidelines
provides direction to judges when they impose sentences

21

truth in sentencing - meaning

the goal is to require offenders to serve a substantial portion of their imposed sentence in prison

22

most serious issues in sentencing

- excessive length of sentences
- nonlegal factor; age and gender that influence sentencing
- racial disparities that are present in sentencing outcomes