01- Intro to Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology- Test 1 Material > 01- Intro to Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01- Intro to Pharmacology Deck (87)
Loading flashcards...
1

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation of Weak Base

pH= pKa + log ([non-ionized]/[ionized])

pH= pKa + log ([B]/[BH+])

2

Pharmacology

study of how drugs (medications) affect biological systems

3

Pharmacy

production, compounding, and distribution of drugs (medications)

4

Toxicology

study of toxic effects of drugs and other chemicals on biological systems

5

Therapeutics

treatment of disease

6

Pharmacotherapeutics

treatment of disease with a drug

7

Pure Food and Drug Act- 1906

Required manufacturers to put active ingredients on drug labels
-first pharma law passed

8

Harrison Narcotic Act- 1914

Made it illegal to sell drugs of abuse over the counter but were made available with a perscription

9

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act- 1938

Had to demonstrate product was safe before you could market it and had to label both active and inactive ingredients on content labels

10

Durham-Humphrey Amendments to Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act- 1951

Created two drug categories:
Legend Drugs- prohibited from dispensing without a prescription (drugs that can cause significant side effects
OTC Drugs- drugs can be received over the counter and considered relatively safe

11

Kefauver-Harris Amendments to Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act- 1962

Required manufacturers to demonstrate that product had to be as effective or more effective than any current drug on the market

12

Controlled Substances Act- 1970

-Created strict outlines for distribution of drugs with addictive potential
-created DEA in dept. of justice
-required prescribers to be licensed
-required prescription limits
-Schedules (I- no medical use, II- highest addictive potential, on down)

13

Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act- 1994

Removed vitamins, minerals, herbals, botanicals, etc. from FDA control

14

pH Partition Hypothesis

For Weak Organic Acids or Weak Organic Bases, the Non-Ionized, more lipid-soluble form crosses biomembranes much more readily than does the Ionized, more Water-Soluble form

HA H+ + A- (weak acid) BH+ B + H+ (weak base)

15

ABC Transporters

Primary active transporters with ATPase activity
-MRPs (MDR, P-Glycoproteins)

16

SLC Transporters

Secondary active transport
-Co-transporters using indirect energy, usually anti-porters
-Organic Anion transporters- wide variety of organic acids
-organic cation transporters- wide variety of organic bases

17

Receptor Mediated

most drugs act via interactions with receptors

18

Non-Receptor Mediated

Drugs that do not act by interaction with receptors.
-usually produce direct chemical effect or binds a molecule
-produces a direct effect

19

Quantal Response

all or none response

20

Graded Response

Continually increasing or decreasing

21

ED50

amount of drug that produces a response in 50% of the population

22

TD50

amount of drug that is toxic to 50% of population

23

LD50

amount of drug that is lethal to 50% of the population

24

Efficacy

refers to how big of a response you can produce with a particular drug
-change in Emax (y-axis)
-ED50 remains the same (x-axis)

25

Potency

how much drug does it take to produce a response
-ED50 will change (x-axis)
-Emax will remain the same (y-axis)

26

Potency Ratio

reflects the difference in potencies of two drugs and is used to measure how much of one drug would you need to get the same effect as the other drug
Potency Ratio= ED50 Drug A/ ED50 Drug B

27

Therapeutic Index

-unitless number that characterizes the safety of a drug by describing the difference between the ED50 and TD50
-drugs with high T.I. will produce therapeutic effects with low risk of toxicity
T.I.= TD50/ED50

28

Agonist

a drug that, by itself, produces a response

29

Antagonist

a drug that, by itself, produces no response but prevents the agonist response

30

Full Agonist

drugs that produce the highest response in a drug class (highest Emax)