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Flashcards in 08. RCT Deck (13):
1

Types of randomization

Simple randomization; stratified randomization; Cross-over randomization; Factorial design

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Simple randomization

Random assignment of sample into study groups

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Stratified (block) randomization

ID potentially confounding variables (i.e. sex) and separate sample into groups according to these, then randomly assign patients to experimental and control groups within each confounding variable group

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Cross-over randomization

Random assignment of sample into experimental and control groups, and then switch 1/2 way through study.

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Factorial design

Random assignment to one of 4 groups; Group 1 = Receives intervention A&B; Group 2 = Intervention A only; Group 3 = Intervention B only; Group 4 = No intervention

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Types of blinding

Single Blind; Double blind

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Single Blind

Patient OR investigator unaware of which tx being given

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Double Blind

Patient AND investigator unware of which tx being given

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Advantages of RCT

Randomization balances prognostic factors across study groups; Dose level can be predetermined; Blinding reduces bias

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Disadvantages of RCT

Subject exclusions may limit ability to generalizae findings to other patients; Long time is require to reach conclusions; Large # of participants required; Financial costs are high; Ethical concerns; Subjects may be non-compliant with tx

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Types of studies that RCTs are used with

Therapy (double blind RCT); Diagnosis; Prevention; Quality improvement; NOT ETIOLOGY

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Types of studies that cohorts are used with

Prognosis; Etiology; Prevention

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Types of studies that case-control are used with

Prognosis