1 Flashcards Preview

Opthal Tania > 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1 Deck (32):
1

squint is called

stabismus

2

3 things used when you describe a stabismus

persistence
direction
classification

3

persistence of stabismus can be either

tropic - present all the time
phoria - latent

4

if squint direction is outwards

exotrophic

5

if squint direction is inwards

esotrophic

6

if squint direction is upwards

hypertrophic

7

if squint direction is downwards

hypotrophic

8

classification od stabismus

paralytic or non paralytic
paralytic means paralysis of one or more muscles (squint will be worse when looking in direction of affected muscle)

9

in cover test what happens when you cover affected eye

unaffected eye will NOT deviate

10

in cover test what happens when you cover the un-affected eye

squinted eye will take up fixation (and non affected eye will move because eye movements are equal and opposite)

11

in cover test what happens when you remove cover from the un-affected eye

the squint will return to its squint position from fixation and normal eye will return to fixation

12

what does the alternative cover test show

if there is a latent squint

13

2 types of diabetic retinopathy

non-proliferative
proliferative

14

4 features of non-proliferative

microaneurysyms
dot and blot haemorrhages
cotton wool spots
hard exudates

15

4 features of proliferative

macula oedema
new vessel growth
retinal haemorrhage
vitreous haemorrhage

16

in diabetic retinopathy which type is worse

proliferative

17

how do you treat macula oedema

focal laser treatment to seal microaneurysms

18

how do you treat new vessel growth

pan-retinal photocoagulation - this reduces proliferative factors and cause regression of new vessels

19

how do you treat vitreous haemorrhage

vitrectomy - operation to remove some or all of vitreous humour

20

what can cause sudden painless loss of vision (8)

Retinal detachment
Vitreous haemorrhage
Retinal vein occlusion
Retinal artery occlusion
Wet age related macular degeneration
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Optic neuritis
Cerebrovascular accident

21

causes of red eye (5)

Conjunctivitis
Corneal abrasions and ulcers
Acute Iritis
Scleritis
Acute Glaucoma (separate notes available)
Subconjunctival haemorrhage

22

what conditions is anterior uveitis associated with (shit loads)

Seronegative arthropathies: Ankylosing spondylitis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome
Infection: TB, Syphillis, HIV, Herpes zoster, Toxoplasmosis, Toxocariasis
Autoimmune: Sarcoidosis, Behcets
Malignancy: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Leukaemia, Retinoblastoma, Ocular melanoma

23

what is episcleritis

Superficial irritation and inflammation of the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the sclera of the eye

24

things that can cause corneal ulceration

Bacterial: Chlamydia, Pseudomonas
Viral: Herpes Simplex virus (causes a dendritic ulcer), Herpes Zoster virus
Fungal: candida, aspergillus
Protozoan: Acanthamoeba in contact lens wearer

25

6 different visual field losses

monocular loss (complete loss on one side only)
bi-temporal hemianopia
homonymous hemianopia
upper homonymous hemianopia
lower homonymous hemianopia
homonymous hemianopia with central sparing

26

on what side is vision loss if lesion is before optic chiasm

on same side as lesion

27

lesion of optic chiasm causes

bi-temporal hemianopia

28

is lesion is after optic chiasm what side will vision loss be on

opposite side to lesion due to cross over

29

lesions where will cause homonymous hemianopia

optic tract

30

where is lesion of you get upper homonymous hemianopia

at temporal radiation

31

where is lesion of you get lower homonymous hemianopia

at parietal radiation

32

where is lesion if you get homonymous hemianopia with central sparing

at occipital pole