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Flashcards in TG - 1 Deck (61):
1

lesion in temporal lobe will have what pattern

upper quadrantanopia (all homonymous)

2

anterior parietal lobe lesion

lower quadranopia

3

posterior parietal lobe lesion

gives hemianopia with macular sparing

4

upper quadrantanopia (all homonymous)

temporal

5

lower quadranopia

anterior parietal

6

gives hemianopia with macular sparing

posterior parietal lobe lesion

7

what is myopia

'near sighted'

8

myopia required what lens

concave (caves in, diverges beam)

9

hypermetropia

long sighted

10

hypermetropia lens

convex (oval, convenes beam)

11

long sighted

hypermetropia

12

short sighted

myopia

13

cataract surgery is called

phacoemulsification + lens replacement

14

what is cataracts

lens opacity

15

cataract risk factors

female sex, DM, steroids, eye trauma, uveitis, smoking, alcoho

16

what is glaucoma

Optic neuropathy usually with high IOP, optic disc cupping, progressive visual loss

17

most common form of glaucoma

open angle

18

what will indicate open angle glaucoma

often bilateral, asymptomatic / peripheral visual loss

19

open angle glaucoma is associated with which type of refractive error

myopia

20

closed angle glaucoma is associated with which type of refractive error

hypermetropia

21

what is arcuate scotoma

an arc-shaped blind area that may develop in the field of vision of a person with glaucoma. It is caused by damage to nerve fibers in the retina.

22

when do you get an arcuate scotoma

mild or moderate open angle glaucoma

23

subtotal optic cupping will suggest what

severe closed angle glaucoma

24

types of closed angle glaucoma

latent, subacute, acute, chronic and absolute

25

symptoms of closed angle glaucoma

eye pain, blurred vision / visual loss, nausea, vomiting, mid-dilation onset

26

what happens to pupil in closed angle

unreactive mid-dilated pupil

27

get ciliary flushing in closed angle glaucoma, what is this?

acutely red eye - periphery of cornea

28

measuring IOP is called

tonometry

29

acute angle glaucoma treatment

IV acetazolamide (diuretic)

30

treatment of non acute angle glaucoma

--

31

where is the macula located

3mm temporal from optic disc

32

what is the fovea and where is it located

a tiny pit located in the macula of the retina

33

degeneration of macular (yellow spots) is called

drusen deposits

34

2 types of macular degeneration, and which is more common

atrophic (dry) - most common
exudative - neovascular changes

35

treatment for exudative (neovascular) macular degeneration

anti-VEGFs (ranizumab)

36

raised intra ocular pressure is

> 21mmHg

37

optic neuritis presents how

unilateral reduced vision / colour vision (esp. red), eye pain; may be RAPD

38

who gets optic neuritis

MS

39

optic neuritis treatment

self resolve ~3 weeks

40

what causes tunnel vision

retinitis pigments (hereditary progressive dystrophy of retinal photoreceptors)

41

'curtain' visual defect

retinal detachment

42

what is photopsia

flashes of light seen in retinal detachment

43

RAPD in detachment suggests what

extensive damage that requires surgery

44

surgery for retinal detachment repair

scleral buckle

45

mild retinal detachment treatment

laser therapy

46

painless visual loss (can only count 2 fingers)

retinal vascular occlusion

47

what is seen on fundoscopy of retinal artery occlusion

pale retina, attenuated vessels, ‘boxcars’, cherry-red macula

48

what is more common artery or vein occlusion

vein (not ischaemic)

49

what finding suggests vein occlusion

flame haemorrhage

50

treatment for vein occlusion

anti-VEGF

51

what is anti-VEGF

anti vascular endothelial growth factor' - stops new vessel growth

52

what is episcleritis and who gets it

inflammation of epsclera (between conjunctiva and sclera) people with IBD and rheumatoid

53

acute mild pain, grittiness, red eye (extra-corneal), normal vision,

episcleritis

54

subacute severe pain radiating to forehead / jaw, wakes at night, red eye • watering, photophobia, gradual decrease in vision

scleritis

55

episcleritis treatment

conservative

56

scleritis treatment

NSAIDs / prednisolone, consider methotrexate

57

who gets scleritis

RA

58

uveitis genetic association

HLA-B27 (so sore eye, sore back, sarcoid)

59

progressive painful red eye, blurred vision, headache, photophobia

anterior uveitis

60

unveils treatment

prednisolone 1% eye drops

61

what can happen to pupil in uveitis

become distorted