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1

affect the landscape

geology
tectonic processes
glaciation

2

upland areas

hard rock
-igneous
-metamorphic
-(some) sedimentary

3

lowland areas

soft
-sedimentary

4

igneous rock

(resistant)
formed from lavas and deep nagana once molten then cooled and crystallised

5

igneous example

granite
basalt

6

sedimentary

(least resistant)
formed form sediment eroded and deposited

7

sedimentary example

chalk
clay
sandstone

8

metamorphic

sedimentary rocks that were heated and compressed during igneous activity

9

metamorphic examples

slate
marble

10

tees-exe line

separates upland and lowland
north =hard
south =soft

11

yorkshire dales

-limestone on valley
= good building stone
-rocks and boulders left by rivers of melting glaciers
-dry stone as field boundaries
-improve land for farming

12

east anglia

low lying
sands and clays (deposited by glaciers)
produce fertile soil for farming
hedges used for field boundaries

13

discordant coats

strata =right angle to coast
soft rock= eroded
hard rock= stays

14

concordant

strata=parallel to coast
hard rock= small crack
soft rock= eroded lots
hard rock= stops eroding

15

weakness in rock structure

joints
faults

16

joints in rock

small vertical cracks in rocks

17

faults in rock

larger cracks
(caused by past tectonic moment where rocks have moved)

18

joints in a cliff

-widen to form a cave
-erode into an arch
-collapses to form a stack
-eroded down into a stump

19

causes of waves

wind + friction
- when wind blows across the sea, friction between wind and water causes waves

20

size of waves depends on

-wind strength
-how long wind blows for
-fetch (length of water wind blows over)

21

summer waves:

constructive

22

constructive waves

-small waves
-strong wash
-gentle slope

23

winter waves

destructive

24

destructive

-plunging waves
-taller and closer together
-strong backwash
-create steep beach profile

25

coastal erosion is

the wearing away and breaking down of rocks

26

coast erosion caused by

hydraulic action
abrasion
attrition

27

hydraulic action

water forced into cracks, air blast out, force rock apart

28

abrasion

loose sediment thrown against cliffs and wears away rock off the cliff

29

attrition

loses sediment knocked off the slide and collides with other sediment and gets worn down

30

sediment is transported by

longshire drift