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1

effects of development on coast
HOUSING

-cheaper than london, can commute
-those who seek a place to retire

2

effects of development on coast
OFFICE

-companies move to coast (cheaper than london)
-companies expand

3

effects of agriculture on coast

-price or farmland =risen
-pressure on wildlife
-flooding

4

effect of industry on coast

conflict with tourists

5

rising sea level
prediction 2100

risen by 30cm - 1m

6

sea level changing

-high tides, gravity of moon
-spring tides
-air pressure=low- storm surge

7

higher sea levels

-‘1 in 50 events’ turns to ‘1 in 20 events’
-beaches spits=erode quicker
-sea defences= useless

8

quick eroding coastline due to:

geology (resistance)
cliff processes (weathering + mass movement)
waves (wave energy and fetch)

9

why cliffs collapse:

1) marine cliff foot processes
2)sub-aerial cliff face processes
3)human actions

10

marine cliff foot processes

Base of the cliff eroded by hydraulic action and abrasion

11

sub-aerial cliff face processes

-weathering weakens cliff
-heavy rain saturates permeable rock at clifftop
-water flows through permeable rock adding weight

12

human actions

-building adds load which ways down cliff

13

hard engineering

using concrete and steel structures to stop waves
(expensive and ugly)

14

soft engineering

using smaller structures and natural materials

15

sea wall

-reflect waves back out to sea
-prevent easy access

16

bullnose and steps

-steps- dissipates energy
-bullnose- throws waves up and out

17

revetments

-breaks up waves
-restricts access and is ugly
-can be destroyed by storms

18

gabions

-cheap type of sea wall which absorbs wave energy
-not strong

19

rock armour

-easy to build
-dissipates wave energy

20

groynes

-prevents longshore drift
-dissipates wave energy
-increase erosion down shore

21

terminal groyne syndrome

trapping sand in one place which stops it reaching another

22

hollistic coastal management

looking at the coastline as a whole

23

why a place along the coat may not be protected:

-value of land may not justify cost
-building defences could cause erosion somewhere else
-climate change= sea level rise
-might be better for environment

24

hollistic

-needs of different people
-sustainable economic costs and benefits
-environment, land and sea

25

protecting the coast choices=

-hold the line
-advance the line
-strategic retreat
-do nothing

26

hold the line

sea defences to stop erosion
(expensive)

27

advance the line

sea defences to move coast
(expensive)

28

strategic retreat

gradually let coast erode and people move away

29

do nothing

take no action at all

30

protecting the coast

-government= too expensive to protect farmland and isolated houses
-residents, councils, business=disagree
-can’t persuade people who have always lived by coat
-planning defences= difficult