1. An Overview of Cells and Cell Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. An Overview of Cells and Cell Research Deck (69):
1

ATP.

adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)

2

A molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.

amphipathic

3

One of two major groups of prokaryotes; many species of of this group live in extreme conditions similar to those prevalent on primitive Earth.

archaebacteria

4

A bacterial virus.

bacteriophage

5

A nematode used as a simple multicellular model for development.

Caenorhabditis elegans

6

An undifferentiated mass of plant cells in culture.

callus

7

Cells that can proliferate indefinitely in culture.

cell line

8

A rigid, porous structure forming an external layer that provides structural support to bacteria, fungi, and plant cells.

cell wall

9

A plastid that contains carotenoids.

chromoplast

10

A form of microscopy in which fluorescence microscopy is combined with electronic image analysis to obtain images with increased contrast and detail.

confocal microscopy

11

The largest and most complex prokaryotes in which photosynthesis is believed to have evolved.

cyanobacteria

12

A network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It provides the structural framework of the cell and is responsible for cell movements.

cytoskeleton

13

A method of separating particles by centrifugation through a gradient of a dense substance, such as sucrose or cesium chloride.

density-gradient centrifugation

14

A method used to separate the components of cells on the basis of their size and density.

differential centrifugation

15

A type of microscopy in which variations in density or thickness between parts of the cell are converted to differences in contrast in the final image.

differential interference-contrast microscopy

16

A species of fruit fly commonly used for studies of animal genetics and development.

Drosophila melanogaster

17

A method used to generate three-dimensional images by computer analysis of multiple two-dimensional images obtained by electron microscopy.

electron tomography

18

A stem cell cultured from an early embryo.

embryonic stem cell

19

An extensive network of membrane-enclosed tubules and sacs involved in protein sorting and processing as well as in lipid synthesis.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

20

A symbiotic relationship in which one cell resides within a larger cell.

endosymbiosis

21

A type of cell that forms sheets (epithelial tissue) that cover the surface of the body and line internal organs.

epithelial cell

22

The separation of particles on the basis of density by centrifugation to equilibrium in a gradient of a dense substance.

equilibrium centrifugation

23

A red blood cell.

erythrocyte

24

A species of bacteria that has been extensively used as a model system for molecular biology.

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

25

One of two major groups of prokaryotes, including most common species of bacteria.

eubacteria

26

A cell that has a nuclear envelope, cytoplasmic organelles, and linear chromosomes.

eukaryotic cell

27

A cell type found in connective tissue.

fibroblast

28

Type of microscopy in which molecules are detected based on the emission of flourescent light.

fluorescence microscopy

29

A method used to study the movement of proteins within living cells.

fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)

30

A method used to study protein interactions within living cells.

fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)

31

Method of electron microscopy in which specimens are frozen in liquid nitrogen and then fractured to split the lipid bilayer, revealing the interior faces of cell membranes.

freeze fracture

32

A functional unit of inheritance, corresponding to a segment of DNA that encodes a polpeptide or RNA molecule

gene

33

The anaerobic breakdown of glucose.

glycolysis

34

A cytoplasmic organelle involved in the processing and sorting of proteins and lipids. In plant cells, it is also the site of the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides.

Golgi apparatus

35

A type of blood cell involved in inflammatory reactions.

granulocyte

36

A protein from jellyfish that is commonly used as a marker for fluorescence microscopy.

green fluorescent protein (GFP)

37

Not soluble in water.

hydrophobic

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Soluble in water.

hydrophilic

39

A blood cell that functions in the immune response. B __________ produce antibodies and T __________ are responsible for cell mediated immunity.

lymphocyte

40

A cytoplasmic organelle containing enzymes that break down biological polymers.

lysosome

41

A type of white blood cell specialized for phagocytosis.

macrophage

42

An electron microscopic technique in which the surface of a specimen is coated with a thin layer of evaporated metal.

metal shadowing

43

Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for synthesis of most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells by oxidative phosphorylation.

mitochondria

44

A type of blood cell involved in inflammatory reactions.

monocyte

45

A form of fluorescence microscopy in which the specimen is illuminated with a wavelength of light such that excitation of the fluorescent dye requires the simultaneous absorption of two or more photons.

multi-photon excitation microscopy

46

A nerve cell specialized to receive and transmit signals throughout the body.

neuron

47

The most prominent organelle of eukaryotic cells; contains the genetic material.

nucleus

48

The use of molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor in the breakdown of organic molecules.

oxidative metabolism

49

A cytoplasmic organelle specialized for carrying out oxidative reactions.

peroxisome

50

A type of microscopy in which variations in density or thickness between parts of the cell are converted to differences in contrast in the final image.

phase-contrast microscopy

51

One of a family of molecules that are the principal components of cell membranes, consisting of two hydrocarbon chains (usually fatty acids) joined to a polar head group containing phosphate.

phospholipid

52

The process by which cells harness energy from sunlight and synthesize glucose from CO2 and water.

photosynthesis

53

A phospholipid bilayer with associated proteins that surrounds the cell.

plasma membrane

54

The initial cell culture established from a tissue.

primary culture

55

A cell lacking a nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic organelles (bacteria).

prokaryotic cell

56

The ability of a microscope to distinguish objects separated by small distances.

resolution

57

A virus that replicates by making a DNA copy of its RNA genome by reverse transcription.

retrovirus

58

A particle composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of protein synthesis.

ribosome

59

An early stage of evolution based on self-replicating RNA molecules.

RNA world

60

A frequently studied budding yeast.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

61

The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.

transcription

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The synthesis of a polypeptide chain from an mRNA template.

translation

63

A centrifuge that rotates samples at high speeds

ultracentrifuge

64

A large membrane-enclosed sac in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. In plant cells, these organelles function to store nutrients and waste products, to degrade macromolecules, and to maintain turgor pressure.

vacuole

65

The separation of particles based on their rates of sedimentation.

velocity centrifugation

66

The simplest unicellular eukaryotes. These organisms are important models for studies of eukaryotic cells.

yeast

67

An African clawed frog used as a model system for developmental biology.

Xenopus laevis

68

A species of small fish used for genetic studies of vertebrate development.

zebrafish

69

A small flowering plant used as a model for plant molecular biology and development.

Arabidopsis thaliana