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Flashcards in 4. Fundamentals of Molecular Biology Deck (75):
1

The use of radioactive or fluorescent probes to detect RNA or DNA sequences in chromosomes or intact cells.

in situ hybridization

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The introduction of mutations into cloned DNA in vitro.

in vitro mutagenesis

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Protein synthesis in a cell-free extract.

in vitro translation

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One copy of a gene.

allele

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A protein produced by B lymphocytes that binds to a foreign molecule.

antibody

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A DNA molecule that is complementary to an mRNA molecule, synthesized in vitro by reverse transcriptase.

cDNA

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A vector that can replicate as a chromosome in yeast cells and can accommodate very large DNA inserts (hundreds of kb).

yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)

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immunoblotting

Western blotting

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A DNA molecule used to direct the replication of a cloned DNA fragment in a host cell.

vector

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The synthesis of a polypeptide chain from an mRNA template.

translation

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The expression of unintegrated plasmid DNAs that have been introduced into cultured cells.

transient expression

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A mouse that carries foreign genes incorporated into the germ line.

transgenic mouse

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The transfer of DNA between genetically distinct bacteria. See also cell transformation. 

transformation

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An RNA molecule that functions as an adaptor between amino acids and mRNA during protein synthesis.

tRNA (transfer RNA)

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The introduction of a foreign gene into eukaryotic cells.

transfection

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The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.

transcription

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A plasmid used for gene transfer in plants.

Ti plasmid

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A molecule against which an antibody is directed. antisense nucleic acid

antigen

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A cell expressing a protein that is functional at one temperature but not at another, whereas the normal protein is functional at both temperatures.

temperature-sensitive mutant

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A method in which radioactive or fluorescent probes are used to detect specific DNA fragments that have been separated by gel electrophoresis.

Southern blotting

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The process of DNA replication in which the two parental strands separate and serve as templates for the synthesis of new progeny strands.

semiconservative replication

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A commonly used method to separate proteins by gel electrophoresis on the basis of size.

SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA.

RNA polymerase

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The degradation of mRNAs by short complementary double-stranded RNA molecules.

RNA interference (RNAi)

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The RNA component of ribosomes.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

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Synthesis of DNA from an RNA template.

reverse transcription

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A DNA polymerase that uses an RNA template.

reverse transcriptase

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Analysis of gene function by introducing mutations into a cloned gene.

reverse genetics

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A virus that replicates by making a DNA copy of its RNA genome by reverse transcription.

retrovirus

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The locations of restriction endonuclease cleavage sites on a DNA molecule.

restriction map

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An enzyme that cleaves DNA at a specific sequence.

restriction endonuclease

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A DNA insert joined to a vector.

recombinant molecule

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A collection of genomic or cDNA clones.

recombinant DNA library

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An allele that is masked by a dominant allele.

recessive

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A method for amplifying a region of DNA by repeated cycles of DNA synthesis in vitro.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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A small, circular DNA molecule capable of independent replication in a host cell.

plasmid

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The physical appearance of an organism.

phenotype

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A vector used for cloning large fragments of DNA in E. coli.

P1 artificial chromosome (PAC)

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A specific DNA sequence that serves as a binding site for proteins that initiate replication.

origin of replication

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The formation of double-stranded DNA and/or RNA molecules by complementary base pairing.

nucleic acid hybridization

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A method in which mRNAs are separated by gel electrophoresis and detected by hybridization with specific probes.

Northern blotting

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New methods that allow rapid sequencing of billions of bases of DNA.

next-generation sequencing

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A genetic alteration.

mutation

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An antibody produced by a clonal line of B lymphocytes.

monoclonal antibody

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The insertion of a DNA fragment of interest into a DNA molecule (vector) that is capable of independent replication in a host cell.

molecular cloning

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A DNA insert joined to a vector.

molecular clone

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An RNA molecule that serves as a template for protein synthesis.

mRNA (messenger RNA)

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The division of diploid cells to haploid progeny, consisting of two sequential rounds of nuclear and cellular division.

meiosis

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A lipid vesicle used to introduce DNA into mammalian cells.

liposome

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Inactivation of a chromosomal gene by homologous recombination with a cloned mutant allele.

knockout

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A method that uses antibodies to detect proteins separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

immunoblotting

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Recombination between segments of DNA with homologous nucleotide sequences.

homologous recombination

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An organism or cell that has one copy of each chromosome.

haploid

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The genetic composition of an organism.

genotype

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The correspondence between nucleotide triplets and amino acids in proteins.

genetic code

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The introduction of foreign DNA into a cell.

gene transfer

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A functional unit of inheritance, corresponding to a segment of DNA that encodes a polpeptide or RNA molecule

gene

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A method in which molecules are separated based on their migration in an electric field.

gel electrophoresis

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A vector used to direct expression of a cloned DNA fragment in a host cell.

expression vector

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A stem cell cultured from an early embryo.

embryonic stem cell

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The introduction of DNA into cells by exposure to a brief electric pulse.

electroporation

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A mutant that interferes with the function of the normal allele of the gene.

dominant inhibitory mutant

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The allele that determines the phenotype of an organism when more than one allele is present.

dominant

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An enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of DNA.

DNA polymerase

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VA glass slide or membrane filter onto which oligonucleotides or fragments of cDNAs are printed at a high density, allowing simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes by hybridization of the microarray with fluorescent probes.

DNA microarray

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An enzyme that seals breaks in DNA strands.

DNA ligase

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An organism or cell that carries two copies of each chromosome.

diploid

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A nucleotide that lacks the normal 3′ hydroxyl group of deoxyribose and is used as a chain-terminating nucleotide in

dideoxynucleotide

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A vector that contains bacteriophage λ sequences, antibiotic resistance sequences, and an origin of replication. It can accommodate large DNA inserts of up to 45 kb.

cosmid

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The basic unit of the genetic code; one of the 64 nucleotide triplets that code for an amino acid or stop sequence.

codon

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A carrier of genes, consisting of long DNA molecules and associated proteins.

chromosome

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The concept that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins.

central dogma

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A nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA) that is complementary to an mRNA of interest and is used to block gene expression.

antisense nucleic acid

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A type of vector used for cloning large fragments of DNA in bacteria.

bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

75

transgenic mouse

A mouse that carries foreign genes incorporated into the germ line.