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Flashcards in 1. BAMS Pharmacology Deck (12):

Name 4 drugs used in dentistry and what they are used for

LA - prevent pain
Anxiolytics - reduce anxiety
Antimicrobials - treat and prevent infection
Analgesics - reduce post-treatment pain/sensitivity


Advantage and disadvantage of oral drug administration

What is first pass

When is oral administration not best (3)

What is oral administration affected by (3)

Socially acceptable, slow onset, affected by first-pass

Passes through liver once before entering circulation, alters [drug]

Emesis, absorption irregularities, destruction by gastric acid

GIT disease, lipid solubility, drug formulation


2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of parenteral administration

1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of:

No first-pass (so higher availability), predictable plasma levels, more severe allergic reactions, expensive

No-first pass (higher bioavailability), IV access (sore, tricky)
Rapid onset, bleeding
No first-pass (higher bioavailability), increased infection risk
No first-pass (higher bioavailability)
Skin - barrier so only small molecule medications work


What is bioavailability

What 4 things is it modified by

Proportion of ingested drug available for clinical effect

Dosage form, first-pass, poor absorption, destruction in gut


What 2 things is drug distribution affected by

Lipid binding and binding to plasma proteins


What does phase 1 drug metabolism do
3 examples of reactions

What does phase 2 drug metabolism do
Example of reactions

Inactivates drug
Reduction, oxidation, hydrolysis

Prepares drug for removal
Conjugation (sulphonation, methylation)


5 methods of drug excretion

Lungs (gas exchange), renal (urine), liver (bile), sweat, saliva


3 features of first order kinetics (drug clearance)

3 features of zero order kinetics (drug clearance)

T0.5 is constant, elimination is passive, removal is proportional to concentration

Elimination is active, reaction can be saturated, maximum rate of removal is constant regardless of concentration


Effect if drug scheduling is too frequent

Effect if drug scheduling is too infrequent

Toxicity (toxic dose)

No clinical effect


2 functions NSAIDs

How does aspirin work

Reduce inflammatory mediators, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis

Antiplatelet medication - reduces platelet aggregation/adhesion, preventing clot formation


4 ways corticosteroids reduce inflammation

7 side effects of corticosteroids

Inhibit capillary permeability
Inhibit bradykinin formation
Inhibit white blood cell migration
Reduce eicosanoid synthesis

Hypertension, diabetes, weight gain, fat distribution change, osteoporosis, adrenal suppression, gastric ulceration


4 essential dental emergency drugs

4 essential dental emergency pieces of equipment

Adrenaline, glucagon, salbutamol (inhaler), midazolam

Defibrillator, bag valve mask, oxygen cylinder, oropharyngeal airway