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Flashcards in 10. PMHP Deck (9):

Definition of dental fear

Definition of dental anxiety

Definition of dental phobia

Normal emotional reaction of one/more threatening stimuli in dental environment

Sense of apprehension that something dreadful is going to happen, coupled with a sense of losing control

Marked and persistent anxiety in relation to clearly discernible situations/objects or to dental situation in general. Complete avoidance of necessary treatment or endurance of treatment with dread in a specialist situation


4 promoting and maintaining factors of dental anxiety

Treatments of dental anxiety

Media representation of dentistry, negative past experiences, infection by family and peers, expectation of pain and poor knowledge of modern analgesia

Pharmacological support (benzodiazepines, nitrous oxide), systemic desensitisation (exposure-based management), patient control (stop and proceed signals), psychiatrist/psychologist referral, general anxiety reducing treatment style (give realistic information, gain trust, acknowledge anxiety), tech coping strategies (distraction and relaxation)


Components of clinical negligence

Dentist owed duty of care
Duty of care was breached
Course adopted is one which no dentist of ordinary skill would have taken if acting with ordinary care
Breach caused/materially contributed to harm
Damage was reasonably foreseeable and had negative consequences


Features of consent

Components of capacity

Features of informed consent

Definition of material risks

Informed, with capacity, not coerced, not manipulated, voluntary

Ability to act (decide), to understand a decision, to retain memory of a decision, to make a reasoned decision, to communicate a decision

Voluntary, up-to-date (continuing), with capacity, sufficient knowledge of purpose, nature, effects and risks, alternatives, likelihood of success, assumption of capacity in over 16s unless assessed otherwise, recorded

Information/risks a reasonable person would attach significance to when making a choice


Risk calculation

Odds calculation

Absolute risk difference calculation

Risk ratio calculation

Odds ratio calculation

Definition of confidence interval



Risk 1 - risk 2

Risk % 1 / risk % 2

Odds 1 / odds 2

Range of values that a population treatment effect is likely to lie in. If CI overlaps/straddles value of no difference between treatments, this indicates insufficient evidence for a difference between groups (not statistically significant)


Definition, advantage and disadvantage of:

Case report/series

Cross-sectional study

Case-control study

Cohort study


Report on single patient with outcome of interest. Generates hypotheses, lack of control

Observation of defined population at single point in time. Investigates risk factors, recall bias

Looks back at risk factor with control

Exposure of established group over time. Estimates incidence, expensive

Compiles and analyses multiple RCTs. Most scientifically sound, time-consuming


4 components of RCT design

Advantage of allocation concealment

Disadvantages of RCT

Participation specification (inclusion/exclusion criteria), control, randomisation, blinding/masking

Prevents selection bias

Expensive, ethics


Definition of screening

Definition and use of epidemiology

Definition of prevalence

Definition of incidence

Planned intervention to achieve early diagnosis and/or treatment of a condition not yet producing/not recognised as producing symptoms

Population study to determine disease frequency and distribution. Monitors infectious/non-infectious diseases and disease natural history

Number of existing cases at a particular period in time

Number of new causes during a particular period in time


5 demographic factors

4 types of questions

4 features of ideal index

Definition of Townsend Index Score

Sex, age, religion, socioeconomic status/postcode, ethnicity

Open, closed, scales (Likert), rhetoric, yes/no, leading

Unambiguous, not time-consuming, reproducible, clear, not subjective

Measure/index of material deprivation