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What was the War of the Roses?

Intermittent civil war between the rivalling political factions of York and Lancaster, who were both descendants of Edward III and whose house heads believed they deserved the throne, rather than their brother (Black Prince’s) son


When was the War of the Roses?

- Started during weak reign of Henry VI
- Ended when Yorkists shut down at Battle of Stoke by Henry VII


List the changes in leadership after Edward III (1327-1377)

- Richard II (Y)(Ed.III’s grandson, son of dead eldest son Black Prince)
- Henry IV (L)(Usurped throne from cousin)
- Henry V (L)
- Henry VI (L)(Weak King - bouts of madness)
- Edward IV (Y)(Usurped throne)
- Henry VI (L) (Reinstated to power for a year)
- Edward IV (Y)
- Edward V (Y)
- Richard III (Y)
- Henry VII (L - T)


When was Edward IV king?

1461-1483 (Gap for one year in 1470-1)


When was Edward V King?



When was Richard III King?



When was Henry VII King?



What was Henry VII’s claim to the throne?

Strongest claim through mother:
- Son of Margaret Beaufort
- Beauforts were descendants of John of Gaunt, through his illegitimate children with Katherine Swynford
- Richard II had legitimised the Beauforts in 1397 parliamentary act ‘Letters Patent’

Weaker claim through father:
- Son of Edmund Tudor
- Edmund Tudor was son of Owen Tudor, who married Henry V’s widow


Which faction was Henry VII from?

(He was the last Lancastrian claimant)


When was the Battle of Bosworth?

22nd August 1485


What were the three key forces in the Battle of Bosworth?

- Richard III
- Henry Tudor
- The Stanleys (Lord Thomas Stanley + younger brother William Stanley)


Who is Lord Thomas Stanley?

- Nobleman
- Husband of Margaret Beaufort


What advantages did Richard III have entering the Battle of Bosworth?

- Closer blood claim (brother of Ed IV, uncle of Ed V)
- Current King defending title
- 10-15,000 men
- Some internal support/power (warned of Welsh invasion)
- Chance of gaining support from the Stanleys (imprisoned Lord Strange)


What disadvantages did Richard III have entering the Battle of Bosworth?

- Popularity reducing (disappearing princes + executions of the Woodvilles)
- Less close ties to Stanleys (support not guaranteed)


What were the advantages of Henry Tudor entering the Battle of Bosworth?

- Offered a new, stable start after turbulent War of the Roses (particularly as he agreed to unite factions by marrying E.of Y)
- Internal support (e.g. Rhys ap Thomas, Welsh landowner, provided 1800-2000 men to Henry at Bosworth)
- External support (Charles VIII of France provided Philibert le Chandee + 1800 mercenaries)
- Greater tie to Stanleys (stepson)


What were the disadvantages of Henry Tudor entering the Battle of Bosworth?

- Weak claim to the throne: previously illegitimate female line
- 5000 men
- Not living in England or familiar with the country


At what age, for how long and where did Henry Tudor enter exile?

- Age 14
- For 14 years (1471-1485)
- In Brittany


Why did Henry Tudor go into exile?

When he became the last Lancastrian claimant (vulnerable) at the Battle of Tewkesbury


What was the role of the Stanleys in the Battle of Bosworth?

- 5000 men
- Entered battle with no clear allegiance (Henry’s stepfather + Lord Strange captured)


Why is it likely that the Stanleys chose to support Henry at Bosworth?

Meeting at Atherstone before battle + Henry appeared as underdog


Who was Lord Strange?

Eldest son of Lord Thomas Stanley


Outline the events of the Battle of Bosworth

- Troops lined up at Bosworth Field
- Henry + Richard’s troops engaged (Stanleys did not engage)
- Henry sent men to the Stanleys (hope to recruit them?)
- Richard sent men to attack Henry’s men on their way
- Stanleys saved Henry + continued to fight on his side, defeating Richard


Outline the results of the Battle of Bosworth?

- Richard III killed + naked body paraded around Leicester
- Henry Tudor crowned Henry VII informally at battle by L.Stanley
- Henry Tudor crowned Henry VII formally at 30th Oct coronation


Name some character traits of Henry VII

- Shrewd
- Cautious
- Multi-lingual
- Eager for money and dealt with it well


What life experiences shaped Henry VII’s character?

- Exile: brought about shrewd, cautious, multi-lingual traits

- Observation of other rulers: financial skills - saw how money could be used when Louis XI paid Ed IV 75,000 crowns + and a 50,000 crown pension to end the 100 years war (Treaty of Picquigny -1475)


What was Henry VII’s immediate aims upon his accession?

- Consolidate power (by: dealing with domestic and foreign threats to throne + gaining financial security)
- Grow a dynasty


What steps did Henry VII take immediately after usurping the throne, in order to consolidate his power?

- Dated reign from 21st Aug (day before Bosworth) to allow traitors to be subject to attainders
- Publicly rewarded key supporters: 11 knighthoods, other positions
- Dealt with greatest threats: Earl of Warwick (prison) + E.of.Y (M.Beaufort) + John de la Pole (swore allegiance + joined Council)
- Placed clergymen temporarily in charge (good administrators, removed need to trust nobles)


Who was Elizabeth of York?

- Daughter of Ed IV + Eliz.Woodville
- Symbolised the Yorkist faction
- Married Henry VII on 18th Jan 1486 to unite the warring factions


How did the marriage between Henry VII + E.of.Y unfold?

- 25th Dec 1483: Henry pledges to marry her
- 23rd Jan 1484: R.III passes ‘Titulus Regis’ making marriage between Ed IV + E.Woodville void, illegitimising E.of.York
- 18th Jan 1485: Henry marries E.of.York after: reversing illegitimization, getting papal dispensation to bypass 12 degrees of consanguinity, courting + ensuring he is ruler in his own right


What steps did Henry VII take shortly after usurping the throne, in order to consolidate his power?

- Began progress across the country
- Coronation (30th Oct)(lavish but not too expensive)
- First parliament (7th Nov)(passed acts to further power)
- Married Elizabeth of York (Jan 1486)(to unite houses + reduce enemies)


What steps did Henry VII take a while after usurping the throne, in order to consolidate his power?

- Produced an heir to start dynasty (Prince Arthur born in Sept 1486)
- Installed Tudor propaganda (portcullis, Cadwallador’s dragon, rose)


What Tudor propaganda did Henry VII implement in order to portray himself as the rightful King?

- Beaufort portcullis in Westminster (showed Beaufort descent)
- Cadwallader’s dragon in designs (showed his claim to be a descendant from the ancient Welsh Kings)
- Tudor Rose (showed unity between York + Lancaster)
- Coin, known as ‘Sovereign Coinage’, with him on throne + shield on reverse (showed his power to commoners)


Why did Henry VII start a progress across the country?

- Inspired by Edward IV (progressed after Battle of Barnet 1471)
- Acts as publicity
- Displays bravery (confidence to go to North, etc, where he was opposed)


Why did Henry VII have his first parliament on 7th Nov 1485?

- Waited until after coronation (prove he wasn’t king due to parliamentary sanction)
- Didn’t wait too long (wanted to pass acts to increase security + power)


What did Henry VII do in his first parliament to help consolidate his power?

- Passed Acts of Attainder against Yorkists who fought at Bosworth (to gain their land = power)
- Gained Tonnage + Poundage for life (financial strength)
- Passed Act of Retainer (limit strength of threats)
- Got parliament to approve his marriage plans


What were the different groups that Henry VII had to consolidate his power over?

- Nobles
- Pretenders
- Public
- Foreign powers


Why were nobles a threat that Henry VII had to placate?

- Had: money, land, influence
- Power had been able to grow as lacked monitoring during War of the Roses


How many nobles fought for Richard III at Battle of Bosworth (threat to Henry)?

12 (but many of his 10,000-15,000 men fought under nobles)


What method did Henry VII use to consolidate power over the nobles?

Carrot + stick (mix of rewards + threats)


What was the pattern of Henry VII’s trust towards the nobles? And how can this be shown through number of attainders issued?

1485-1486: Understandably cautious - 56 attainders

1486-1500: More trusting - 8 attainders

1504-1509: Excessively mistrusting - 51 attainders


Why did Henry VII have an initially cautious stance towards nobles?

- Had a turbulent period in exile + wanted reign to be secure
- Didn’t give anybody automatic trust
- Ideally wanted those in power to have personally proven their loyalty to him, but knew he sometimes had to keep existing nobles, so treated them with caution (monitoring using JPs and then carrot + stick method)


Why did Henry VII have to keep some nobles? Give an example

Needed nobles to provide him with an army + existing nobles (e.g. Earl of Northumberland) knew their people + how to maintain control in their area


Why did Henry VII’s stance on nobles become more trusting?

- Became more aware of nobles, who had chance to personally prove their loyalty + be rewarded in the personal monarchy way he liked


What is a personal monarchy?

Positions of power are reflective of good personal relationships with the monarch, rather than good lineage


Why did Henry VII’s stance towards the nobles change?

1495: William Stanley betrayal - nobles cannot all be trusted
1502: Arthur dies
1503: E.of.Y dies

Henry VII becomes harsher in all manners, including towards nobles, as he feels more alone + has greater paranoia of threats


What are some ‘carrot’ methods used by Henry VII to consolidate power over the nobles?

- Patronage (e.g. members of King’s Council + Privy Chamber)
- Prestige (e.g. Order of the Garter)
- Reversed Acts of Attainder, returning seized land


What are some ‘stick’ methods used by Henry VII to consolidate power over the nobles?

- Bonds + recognisances, limiting finances
- Acts of Retainer, limiting men
- Acts of Attainder, limiting land


What is the Act of Resumption? When was it? Why was it used?

- Act to reclaim lands of H.VI
- 1486 Parliament
- Made King the majority landowner, (according to Gunn, multiplied crown lands by 5)
- Generally consolidated power (as land = power)


What was patronage? How was it used as a ‘carrot’ for nobles? Give an example

- Patronage = giving positions of power, land, etc to supporters, as a result of their good, loyal service
- Henry VII gave patronage in a number of ways, e.g. positions in the King’s Council + the Privy Chamber
- E.g. Jasper Tudor (uncle + loyal supporter) made Duke of Bedford + had Welsh estates restored after Bosworth


What was prestige? How was it used as a ‘carrot’ for nobles? Give an example

- Prestige = giving honour/title (but not land or actual power!) to supporters, as a result of their good, loyal service
- Henry VII most commonly did this via the ‘Order of the Garter’
- Made 37 ‘Knights of the Garter’, which Chrimes called an “ultimate mark of honour”
- E.g. John de Vere Earl of Oxford (supporter in exile + main commander of Henry’s troops in Battle of Bosworth) made Knight of the Garter


What was reversing the Acts of Attainder? How was this used as a ‘carrot’ for nobles? Give an example

- Reversing Acts of Attainder = returning land + accompanying money, that was removed due to disobedience
- E.g. Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, attainted + imprisoned for fighting alongside his late father John Howard Duke of Norfolk, but had this reversed and title regained in 1489 when he swore oath of allegiance to King. This carrot worked - helped to suppress the Yorkshire Rising 1489 - but King always had some caution - never fully restored to Duke of Norfolk


What are Bonds + Recognisances ? How were they used as a ‘stick’ for nobles? Give an example

- Bonds = written contract of expectation of good behaviour/certain task, if not fulfilled lost money associated with contract
- Recognisances = recognition of existing debt to King, could be asked to repay at any time with financial penalty
- Henry VII used them to gain loyalty, by threatening financial ruin
- 36/62 leading noble families
- E.g. Earl of Northumberland - £10,000 bond after Bosworth to guarantee his loyalty, if broken had to pay £10,000


What were the Acts of Retainer? How were they used as a ‘stick’ for nobles? Give an example

- Retainer = man in livery (uniform) acting in noble’s personal army
- 1485: At parliament nobles swore not to illegally retain
- 1504: Retaining limited, required licenses, fined £5 per month for every illegal retainer
- Prevented the threat of uprising from noble with a large army through financial threat
- Needed some retaining present, so they could fight for the King
- E.g. Lord Burgavenny - in 1506 charged £70,550 for illegally retaining 471 men


What were the Acts of Attainder? How were they used as a ‘stick’ for nobles? Give an example

- Acts of Attainder = disobedient nobles stripped of title + land (+ the money + power that went with this)
- Threat of such great loss hoped to keep nobles loyal
- Passed many at 1st Parliament : 7th Nov 1485
- E.g. Earl of Surrey


How many Acts of Attainder did Henry VII pass? Compared to Edward IV?

138 (compared to Edward IV’s 140)


How many Acts of Attainder did Henry VII reverse? Compared to Edward IV?

46 (compared to Edward IV’s 42)


How many of the leading noble families were tied to Henry VII via bonds?

36 of the 62


Who were the two main threatening pretenders that Henry VII had to consolidate power over?

- Lambert Simnell (1487)
- Perkin Warbeck (1491-1499)


How were foreign powers a threat to Henry VII upon accession? Give examples

- Supported pretenders
(E.g. Margaret of Burgundy - supported/trained Perkin Warbeck)

- Supported public rebellions
(E.g. Margaret of Burgundy - gave 2000 mercenaries to anti-King force at Battle of Stoke)


Who was Lambert Simnell pretending to be?

Edward, Earl of Warwick
(Son of George Duke of Clarence, nephew of R.III + Ed IV)
(Better claim to throne than Henry VII)


Where was the real Earl of Warwick?

Imprisoned in the Tower by Henry VII


Outline the events of the threat Lambert Simnell

- 1487: Started ‘pretending’
- May 1487: Crowned King in Ireland
- 16th June 1487: Acted as Yorkist figurehead in Battle of Stoke (arranged by John de la Pole)


What happened at the Battle of Stoke (16th June 1487)?

- John de la Pole arranged pitched battle
- Simnell + Burgundian and Irish mercenaries (8000) VS King (12,000)
- King won
- Simnell captured + set to work in King’s kitchens
- John de la Pole killed
- War of the Roses ended with Yorkist defeat


Who was John de la Pole?

- Earl of Lincoln
- Nephew (+named heir) of Richard III
- Seen by many to be leader of Yorkists after Bosworth
- Entered Henry VII’s Council, but quickly betrayed him by orchestrating the Battle of Stoke (1487), where he was killed


How did Henry VII remove the threat of pretender Lambert Simnell?

- Originally showed acceptance of John de la Pole by making him member of Council - unsuccessful
- Kept Earl of Northumberland (traditionally Yorkist) in North, to reduce public support for the rebellion - successful - Yorkists relied on mercenaries
- Called Great Council to pledge allegiance to King before battle
- Displayed real Earl of Warwick (from Tower) to discredit Simnell’s claim


Who was Perkin Warbeck pretending to be?

Richard Duke of York (youngest prince in the tower)

(Initially pretended to be Earl of Warwick, but changed)


Where was the real Richard Duke of York?

Unknown - disappeared in Tower under R.III + presumed dead


Outline the events of the threat Perkin Warbeck

- 1491: Started pretending (in Ireland)
- 1492: Fled to Margaret of Burgundy’s court, trained as a Yorkist
- 1495: Attempted English invasion, failed. Fled to James IV of Scotland, well received, married King’s cousin Lady Catherine Gordon
- 1496: Attempted English invasion with Scottish support, failed
- 1497: Joined 2nd wave of Cornish Rebellion, failed, captured at Beaulieu Abbey
- Treated leniently at first (imprisoned), tried to escape, put in Tower
- 1499: Hanged on 23rd Nov for allegedly planning to overthrow King with fellow Tower prisoner Earl of Warwick


How did Henry remove the threat of the pretender Perkin Warbeck?

- Cut off foreign support:
FRANCE - Treaty of Etaples (1492)
French agreed to stop supporting Warbeck + pay £159,000 for England to stop invasion
SCOTLAND - Truce of Ayton (1497)
Stopped cross-border conflicts + support of pretenders, laying foundations for formal Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1502) + marriage of James IV to Margaret Tudor (1503)
BURGUNDY - Trade embargo (1493-6)
Cut off trading relations in attempt to force Margaret of Burgundy into stopping support for Warbeck
- Cut off internal support:
Acts of Attainder against nobles associated with him (e.g. William Stanley)
- Creation of Privy Chamber (1495) to shrink inner circle + trust less


What did Margaret of Burgundy send Henry VII in 1499?

Official apology for supporting Warbeck


What Yorkists nobles provided a particular threat for Henry VII and had to be dealt with individually?

- John de la Pole (part of Lambert Simnell + Battle of Stoke)
- Lord Lovell + Stafford brothers
- Edmund de la Pole
- Richard de la Pole


How did Lord Lovell + the Stafford brothers present a threat?

Orchestrated first rebellion (1486 - during progress)

Lovell - Yorkshire
Staffords - Midlands


Which pretender was the greatest threat to Henry? Why?

Perkin Warbeck
- Long lasting (1491-9)
- Significant internal support (conspired with William Stanley)
- Significant external support (France, Scotland, Burgundy)
- Threat wasn’t relieved after capture, had to be killed to ensure security


Did Lovell + Staffords present a big threat?

- Little internal support
- Easily suppressed


What happened to Lovell + Staffords post-rebellion?

Lovell: Fled to Burgundy
Humphrey Stafford: Executed
Thomas Stafford (younger brother): Pardoned


How did Edmund + Richard de la Pole present a threat?

De la Pole family were powerful Yorkists that opposed Henry VII


What evidence is there that the De la Poles didn’t support Henry VII?

Commissioned a royal descent scroll, showing Henry VII as a descendent from Owen Tudor, not main bloodline


What happened to Richard de la Pole?

Went into exile + died in 1525 Battle of Pavia fighting for French


What happened to Edmund de la Pole?

- Under protection of Margaret of Burgundy (1498-1506)
- Philip of Burgundy forced to hand him over during 1506 Treaty of Windsor
- Imprisoned in Tower, then executed by Henry VIII in 1513


What were the two main threats provided by the public that Henry had to deal with?

- Yorkshire Rebellion (1489)
- Cornish Rebellion (1497)


When was the Yorkshire Rebellion?



What caused the Yorkshire Rebellion?

- Henry VII wanted to support Brittany in the Breton Crisis (1487-92), pledged £100,000 that had to be raised through tax
- Yorkshire very unhappy with raised tax (had poor harvest, already anti-Lancastrian, saw other northern cities exempt to fund border protection)


What happened to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland during the Yorkshire Rebellion?

- Took the case of the people to King (said unhappy with tax raise)
- King didn’t change taxes
- Murdered upon his return (people unhappy with his lack of success + rumour he supported the tax)


Who led the Yorkshire Rebellion?

Sir John Egremont


How did Henry VII deal with the Yorkshire Rebellion?

- Sent Earl of Surrey to suppress rebellion
- Earl of Surrey was successful, so made Lieutenant to replace late Earl of Northumberland
- Showed mercy to many members of public - giving pardons
- Faced no other problems there


How much of the pledged £100,000 did Henry VII actually raise for Brittany, despite success of shutting down Yorkshire Rebellion?



When was the Cornish Rebellion?



What caused the Cornish Rebellion?

- Cornish already unhappy with Tudor attempts at centralisation, which resulted in removal of their privileges, e.g. Stannary Parliament
- King raised taxes to fund a Northern campaign under Lord Daubeney against Scotland + Perkin Warbeck threat, which Cornish saw as irrelevant to them (so far away)


Who rebelled during Cornish Rebellion?

- Started by two Cornish Blacksmiths (Joseph + Flammock)
- Lord Audley became significant noble leader
- 15,000 peasants


How did Henry VII deal with the threat of the Cornish Rebellion?

- Recalled Daubeney’s army from North to defeat rebels at Blackheath, where approx 1000 killed
- Leaders executed: Joseph, Flammock, Audeley
- Captured + imprisoned Perkin Warbeck
- Many individuals pardoned by Jasper Tudor


What was Stannary Parliament?

Cornwall’s own parliament that gave them privileges, specifically regarding tin mining


Which was the most significant public rebellion under Henry VII? Why?

Cornish Rebellion (1497)
- Reached Blackheath (close to London)
- Large scale
- Had to suppress using more force (e.g. leaders executed)