Flashcards in 6 - Religion, Humanism, The Arts And Learning Deck (82)
What religion people did all English people belong to?
What kind of role did the Catholic Church play?
Were most people loyal to the Catholic Church?
- Yes: most people fully accepted beliefs of Catholicism
- BUT: some opposition (heresy + anticlericalism)
What was a cardinal?
Senior churchman (international)
What was an archbishop?
Senior churchman (head of province)
What was a bishop?
Churchman (head of diocese)
What was a parish priest?
Head of parish church
Who was the head of the church?
What was the relationship between the Church (Pope) + the State (Henry VII)?
- Erastian (State had more authority in England than Church)
- Respectful, positive relationship
- Worked together
Give an example of an action when the Pope + Henry VII worked together
Abolition of the ‘Privilege of Sanctuary’
(Could no longer go to sanctuary to escape convictions)
- Henry VII abolished it
- Got permission of Pope
How did the Church have a political role?
Helped with administration + control of the country (nationwide level, local level, personal level)
What sections was the country split into by the Church to allow it to play its political role (admin + control)?
- Canterbury + York
- Each run by an Archbishop
- Within provinces
- Each run by a Bishop
Many (approx 10,000) parishes
- Within dioceses
- Each run by a Parish Priest
How did the Church play political role of helping control the public at a nationwide level?
Lords Spiritual in House of Lords
- Bishops, abbots, heads of religious houses
- Played position in Parliament, helping pass laws + administer control
Clergymen in high political roles
- E.g. John Morton + Bishop Fox (Council + Privy Chamber)
- Influenced laws passed + actions taken by King
How did the Church play political role of helping control the public at a local level?
- Some jurisdiction powers to convict + control public (non-secular matters, marriages, wills, etc)
How did the Church play political role of helping control the public at a personal level?
Individuals behaved better + observed 7 Sacraments, as wanted to acquire grace (pure state of soul needed to enter heaven) + limit time in purgatory (state in which sins purged)
What are the 7 Sacraments of the Catholic Church that individuals had to observe?
- Baptism = welcoming baby into Church community
- Confirmation = transition into adulthood, faith own responsibility
- Marriage = two individuals pledge themselves to each other
- Anointing sick = preparing dying for passage to Heaven
- Penance = seeking forgiveness for sins
- Holy orders = priest empowered to give sacraments to others
- Eucharist = Holy Communion, in which transubstantiation completed
Why was Holy Communion important?
- Fulfilled seventh sacrament of Eucharist
- Priest giving sacrifice on behalf of whole community
- Whole community participated
What was transubstantiation?
Bread + wine becomes body + blood of Christ during Holy Communion, which is given to community to bring them closer to God
How did the Church play an economic role?
- Something that individuals spent their money on by choice (indulgences + donations by benefactors)
- Something that individuals were forced to donate to via tax (tithes)
- Way that individuals could get money (well paid high Church roles)
How rich was the Church?
Unknown, but VERY RICH
- Had approx 1/3 England’s land
What were indulgences?
Monetary payment by individuals to absolve sins
What were donations by benefactors?
Donations made by individuals to improve the beauty of worship (e.g. to pay for church repairs) + for personal reasons (e.g. in hope to reduce time in purgatory + be remembered)
What were tithes?
Tax of 1/10 of a person’s income paid to Church (usually paid in wheat)
How did the Church play a social role?
- Time when community came together during services
- Guilds + confraternities
- Way that individuals could rise up the social ladder (by getting high Church roles)
What were guilds + confraternities?
Voluntary associations individuals created to promote religion
- Social groups
- Very popular (E.g. Small rural parish Salle, Norfolk, had 7)
- Varied in wealth + size
- Raised money through fundraisers (E.g. Church ale festivals - Mids)
- Contributed to community projects (E.g. bridges, schools)
Why did guilds + confraternities sometimes cause an issue?
Powerful ones acted as monopolies (e.g. on trade)
What was a pilgrimage?
A journey to a place of religious devotion
- Hoped to reduce time in purgatory
- Most popular site: Thomas Becket’s tomb, Canterbury
- Large scale pilgrimages losing some popularity
What was Rogationtide?
- Walk around parish with banners, praying to ward off evil spirits (known as ‘beating the bounds’)
- Completed by members of community each Sunday
How was the Church a source of entertainment?
- Did festivals, often based on agricultural year
- E.g. Corpus Christi (‘body of Christ’) was a festival to celebrate importance of transubstantiation
Was individual worship done?
- Mystics emphasised importance of personal communication with God as well as social group services
What were the 3 types of religious orders?
What was the importance of religious orders?
- Was the life + job chosen by some individuals
- Gave back to the rest of society: charity, education, etc
What were monks?
Religious communities of men, living in self-sufficient monasteries, typically under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience
There were different monastic orders. Give 2 examples
- Most common
- Oldest (named after first monk St Benedict)
Cistercians + Carthusians
- Formed in hope of returning to simplistic monastic roots (stem away from the overly rich Benedictines), but eventually became rich + corrupt too
- Often in rural areas
What type of people typically became monks?
- 1% adult males in 1500
- Often from rich backgrounds, but not the eldest son inheritor
Were monks respected?
Yes - but sometimes disliked for being too rich
What were friars?
Religious communities of men, living among lay people, typically under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience
There were different types of friars. What were the names of the three main types at the time?
- Dominicans (black friars)
- Franciscans (grey friars)
Why did friars form?
To give back more to the community than the wealthy monks
What type of people typically became friars?
- Often from more poor, humble backgrounds
What were nuns?
Religious communities of women, in self-sufficient nunneries, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience
Were nunneries rich?
- Traditionally not (less rich than monasteries)
- Exception: Syon (richer + more respected than most)
What type of people typically became nuns?
- Often women deemed unsuitable for marriage (this was last resort)
Were nuns respected?
Often no - much less respect than monks
Did the Church need reform under Henry VII?
- It was starting to
- Corruption had started during War of Roses + was slowly growing, unstopped by Henry VII
- By Henry VIII reign there was a need for reform
What types of corruption/criticisms were present in the Church?
- Church held ‘too much’ economic power
- Church held ‘too much’ political power
- Individuals + monastic orders were becoming corrupt
How was nepotism a part of corruption in the Church?
Nepotism = giving roles to family/children
- Prevented the most suitable candidate getting the role
How was simony a part of corruption in the Church?
Simony = buying/selling roles in the Church
- Prevented the most suitable candidate getting the role
How was pluralism a part of corruption in the Church?
Pluralism = holding multiple roles in the Church
- Prevented all roles being completed to best ability
- Also an issue when clergymen had political roles, e.g. John Morton
How was the Church holding ‘too much’ economic power a part of corruption in the Church?
Church were becoming great landowners + very rich
- Land had to be administered, taking time away from spiritual matters
- Church was never supposed to be a wealthy, profiting body
How was the Church holding ‘too much’ political power a part of corruption in the Church?
- Church courts could use capital punishment, seen as interfering with the job of the state
- Clergymen with political roles were less focused on spiritual roles
How were individuals + monastic orders becoming corrupt?
Not following their Church vows
- E.g. Vow of celibacy: Pope Alexander II had 7 illegitimate kids
- E.g. Vow of poverty: Benedictine monks becoming very rich
Most people in England were loyal to the Church, but 2 strands of opposition were emerging under Henry VII, what were they?
- Belief in need for REVOLUTION into new Church (Protestants)
- Belief in need for REFORM of current Church (Humanists)
What is heresy?
Denying validity of key Church doctrines
What is anticlericalism?
Opposing the authority of the Church
What did Protestants want with the Church?
To have a REVOLUTION to form a new version of the Church
Which people were often described as heretics?
Who were the Lollards?
First famous Protestants
- Founded by John Wycliffe at end of 14thC
- Believed Catholic Church had become corrupt so must be remade, with emphasis on translating the Bible + removing key practices that they disagreed with (e.g. transubstantiation/Eucharist)
Briefly outline the pattern of belief that Church needed a Revolution
- Late 14th C: Became widespread belief under the Lollards
- Early 15th C: Declined in popularity after Lollards labelled as heretics + their 1414 Lollard Uprising failed
- Henry VII’s reign: Belief fairly uncommon
- Henry VIII’s reign: Belief more widespread again, particularly after Luther’s 95 theses pinned on Wittenberg door in 1517
Briefly outline the pattern of belief that Church needed a Reformation
- Henry VII’s reign: Humanist scholars became known, with some support (boosted by Erasmus’ first visit to England in 1499)
- Henry VIII’s reign: Humanism became more widespread (boosted by influence of one of King’s councillors: Thomas More)
What was the burning of the heretics law? When? Who was affected?
Burning of heretics became part of English law (1401)
- Very few were actually prosecuted at time
What did Humanists want with the Church?
To have a REFORMATION to improve the current Church + reduce corruption
What was humanism?
- Development of the 14th-15thC Renaissance
- Intellectual movement that began in Italy
- Focused on: reviving classical learning + the arts (by going back to the original texts) to produce a wholesome education
- Regarding religion: focused on reforming Church to remove corruption through emphasis on education + translating religious texts
Name 5 humanists
- William Groycn (one of first English humanist scholars - theology)
- Thomas Linacre (one of first English humanist scholars - science)
- John Colet (one of most influential humanists - reforming Church from within)
- Erasmus (one of most influential humanists - reforming Church from within)
- Thomas More (influential councillor to Henry VIII)
What was the alternative type of philosophy to humanism that was more widespread under Henry VII?
Scholastic philosophy (traditional, structured, formal)
What was education like under Henry VII?
- Available for: wealthy (only poor if very good local facilities)
- Type: mainly traditional scholastic, humanism growing
- In all, education becoming more popular (supported by humanism)
What was elementary education under Henry VII?
- Song schools
- Reading schools
What was secondary education under Henry VII?
- Grammar schools (many new formed)
What type of schools had many new openings under Henry VII? How many opened?
- 1460-1509: 53
What was university education under Henry VII?
- Cambridge (many new colleges founded - e.g. Christ’s College + St.John’s College founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort)
What was the most prevalent art form under Henry VII?
What were plays used for?
Giving religious + moral messages
When were plays performed?
- Festivals (E.g. Church ale festivals)
- Troupes of Players (constantly toured country, sponsored by nobles)
When was music performed?
- Local scale: Local groups performed at community festivals
- Large scale: Choirs in cathedrals
- King + other rich households: Paid to have regular performances
What were minstrels?
Medieval singers/musicians who performed for King/rich households (often from balcony called the ‘minstrel’s gallery’)
How was music developing at the time of Henry VII?
Single line chants were becoming polyphonic pieces (multiple sounds + voices)
Name some instruments used at the time
- Shawms (forerunner of oboe)
- Sackbut (forerunner of trombone)
- Stringed instruments e.g. lutes
What is the most important record of music that survives from Henry VII’s reign?
Eton Choirbook (1505)
- 93 compositions
- Political figures at time had written compositions (e.g. Browne)
When was the printing press brought to England? By who?
- William Caxton
What was the impact of the printing press upon education?
- More texts available
- Language more standardised
- Literacy rates increased
What was the main architectural style under Henry VII?
Gothic perpendicular style
- Gothic = pointed arches + large windows
- Perpendicular = vertical lines used